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Appendix 2



GRAMMAR REFERENCE

APPENDIX

We use POSSESSIVE and ABSOLUTE PRONOUNS
to show that something belongs to somebody.

Possessive pronouns
are followed by a noun.
Absolute pronouns
are used without a noun.
For example:
That isn't my pencil.
Is this your bag?
This can't be their cat.
Mine is here.
My bag is old and yours is new.
Theirs is black and white.

REFLEXIVE PRONOUNS

use example
Singular pronouns end in -self
myself
yourself
himself
herself
itself
The plural forms end in -selves
ourselves
yourselves
themselves
We use reflexive pronouns after the verb when the subject and the object are the same person. I hurt myself when I fell down.
She made herself a cup of coffee.

Note: We often use reflexive pronouns after: behave, burn, control, cut, defend, enjoy, help, hurt, introduce, kill and teach.

use example
Reflexive pronouns are also used after a verb + preposition. She spoke to herself.
He looked at himself in the mirror.
Take care of yourself.
She did it by herself, (on her own)
Sometimes we use reflexive pronouns for emphasis. Prince Charles himself painted the pictures.

COMPARATIVES: ADJECTIVES
use: to compare two things, people, etc.

form example
one-syllable adjectives: usually adjective + -er (+ than)
one-syllable adjectives ending in a short vowel followed by a consonant: usually double the last consonant + -er (+ than)
adjectives ending in -e: usually adjective + -r {+ than)
Drums are louder than violins.

Chillies are hotter than onions.

I think peaches are nicer than apples.
two-syllable adjectives ending in -y. usually change -y to -kr (+ than)
most two-syllable adjectives and adjectives with three or more syllables: more + adjective (+ than)
Pete is noisier than Tom.

The Emperor Nero was more famous than the Emperor Tiberius.

Notes:

  • We use as + adjective + as to say that two people or things are the same.
    Example:
    He is as tail as his father.
  • 'The film was not as/so interesting as the book' means the same as The book was more interesting than the film'.
  • 'Lemons are not as big as oranges' means the same as 'Oranges are bigger than lemons'

SUPERLATIVES: ADJECTIVES
use: to compare three or more things, people, etc.

form example
one-syllable adjectives:
usually the + adjective + -est
one-syllable adjectives ending in a short vowel followed by a consonant: usually the + adjective with last consonant doubled + -est
adjectives ending in -e: usually the + adjective + -st
two-syllable adjectives ending in -y.
the + adjective
with -y changed to -iest
most two-syllable adjectives and adjectives with three or more syllables: the most + adjective
Are drums the loudest musical instrument?
Chillies are the hottest vegetables.



I think peaches are the nicest fruit in the world.
Pete is the noisiest boy in the school.


Nero was the most famous Roman emperor.

IRREGULAR COMPARATIVES AND SUPERLATIVES: ADJECTIVES

adjective comparative superlative
good
bad
far
much/many
little
old
better
worse
farther/further
more
less
older/elder
the best
the worst
the farthest/furthest
the most
the least
the oldest/eldest

COMPARATIVES: ADVERBS
use: to compare two actions, etc

form example
one-syllable adverbs:
usually more + adverb
adverbs with the same form as adjectives:
adverb + -er
Sue speaks more quietly than

My grandmother lived longer than my grandfather

SUPERLATIVES: ADVERBS
use: to compare three or more actions, etc.

form example
one-syllable adverbs: usually the most + adverb
adverbs with the same form as adjectives: the + adverb + -est
Sue speaks the most quietly.
My grandfather lived the longest in our family.

THE VERB PRESENT SIMPLE

form + I/You like pasta. He/She/It likes pasta. We/You/They like pasta.

– I/You don't like pasta. He/She/It doesn't like pasta. We/You/They don't like pasta.

? Do l/you like pasta? Does he/she/it like pasta? Do we/you/they like pasta? The present simple is used to talk about things which happen or exist all the time, not just at the moment of speaking.

use example
for repeated actions — often used with adverbs of frequency (e.g. always, often, sometimes, never)
for general truths, facts and states

for timetables and programmes (often made by someone else, not the speaker) for present actions in commentaries or stories
The postman always delivers the letters at 8:00 am.

Our bodies contain five litres of blood. She has four dogs. They live in the country.
Lunch is at 1 pm.

The horse Starlight is in the lead.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS

form     be + verb + -ing form

+ I am reading. You are reading. He/She/It is reading. We/You/They are reading.

– I am not reading. You are not reading. He/She/It is not reading. We/You/They are not reading.

? Am I reading? Are you reading? Is he/she/it reading? Are we/you/they reading?

use example
for incomplete actions taking place at the moment of speaking
for temporary situations in the present
I'm talking on the phone — I'll be finished soon.
It's raining at the moment.
for changes taking place at the present time (sometimes used with more and more)
to express irritation (used with always)
for future arrangements (often used with adverbs of time, e.g. tomorrow, this weekend)
IThe weather is getting hot.
Our teacher is always giving us extra homework!
I'm meeting my friends at 6:00 pm.

STATIVE VERBS
Some verbs are usually used only in the Present Simple,
not in the Present Continuous.

use verbs example
for talking about the senses appear, feel, hear, see, seem, smell, sound, taste You seem tired.
That smells wonderful!
He sounds annoyed.
for talking about thinking agree, appear, believe, disagree, forget, imagine, know, prefer; promise, remember; realise, think, recognise, understand He thinks she's happy.
I know what you mean.
for talking about feeling like, love, dislike, hate, want, wish We prefer to walk.
I love Italian paintings.
for talking about possession belong, have/have got, own, possess The coat belongs to that woman.
He has a motorbike.
I own my car.
for situations which stay the same be, contain, deserve, include, need The trees are tall.
He needs a holiday.

PAST SIMPLE

form    regular: verb + -ed

+ I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They played football.

– I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They did not play football.

? Did l/you/he/she/it/we/you/they play football?
irregular: e.g. shake/shook, make/made, think/thought

use example
for repeated actions in the past
for short, completed actions at a definite
time in the past (sometimes the time is
not mentioned but is understood)
for telling stories in which one thing
happened after another
for completed situations in the past
We walked in the park every morning.
We left at 6 pm.



She said goodbye, opened the door and left the house.
My grandparents lived in Corfu for many years.

Note: Adverbial expressions which we often use with the Past Simple include: at (four o'clock), on (2 July 2000), last week/month/year, in (1999), yesterday, on (Friday), ago.

PAST CONTINUOUS

form    past tense of be + verb + -ing form

+ I was sleeping. You were sleeping. He/She/It was sleeping. We/You/They were sleeping.

– I was not sleeping. You were not sleeping. He/She/It was not sleeping. We/You/They were not sleeping.

? Was I sleeping? Were you sleeping? Was he/she/it sleeping? Were we/you/they sleeping?

use example
for temporary, continuing situations in the past
for background information about the weather; what people were doing or wearing
for an action in the past which is interrupted by another
He was standing next to the window.

The children were all wearing new clothes.

The sun was shining as we drove along the coast.

form    have + past participle

+ I/You have read Persuasion. He/She/It has read Persuasion. We/You/They have read Persuasion.

– I/You have not read Persuasion. He/She/It has not read Persuasion. We/You/They have not read Persuasion.

? Have l/you read Persuasion? Has he/she/it read Persuasion? Have we/you/they read Persuasion?

use example
for recently completed actions
(without a definite time)
for recently completed actions (with just)
for actions in the past which are still
important in the present
for actions or situations which started in
the past and continue up to the present
(often used with since, for)
for past actions which refer to an
unknown, incomplete timean (often used with never, ever)
with the superlative
I've finished my homework.

He has just washed the car.

He has painted many wonderful pictures.
They have walked to school every day for two years. He has lived in this town since 1980.
Have you ever visited Australia?
He has never been in a plane.

This is the best holiday I've ever had.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

form    have + been + verb + -ing form

+ I/You have been singing. He/She/It has been singing. We/You/They have been singing.

– I/You have not been singing. He/She/It has not been singing. We/You/They have not been singing.

? Have l/you been singing? Has he/she/it been singing? Have we/you/they been singing?

use example
for temporary or incomplete actions in the past She has been playing music since lunchtime.
We have been walking for two hours.

PAST PERFECT

form    had + past participle

+ I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They had learnt to swim on holiday. I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They had not learnt to swim on holiday.

? Had l/you/he/she/it/we/you/they learnt to swim on holiday?

use example
for a past event which happened before another past event
to emphasise the order in which events occurred
They arrived at the cinema late and found that the film had already begun.
We didn't eat dinner until we had cleaned the house.

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS

form    had + been + verb + -ing form

+ I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They had been working.

– I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They had not been working.

? Had l/you/he/she/it/we/you/they been working?

use example
for an action which began in the past and was still happening when another action started in the past She had been learning English for a year before she understood a word.

form    used to + verb

+ l/You/He/She/lt/We/You/They used to play the piano.

– I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They didn't use to play the piano.

? Did l/you/he/she/it/we/you/they use to play the piano?

use example
for states and repeated actions in the past which do not exist now We used to live in France.

WOULD

form    would + verb

use example
for repeated actions in the past which do not happen now The ancient Egyptians would tell the time by the sun. Before he started his new job, he would watch television all evening.

FUTURE SIMPLE

form    will + infinitive without to

+ I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They will wait.

– I/You/He/She/It/We/You/They will not wait.

? Will l/you/he/she/it/we/you/they wait?

use example
for decisions made at the time of speaking
for predictions (often used with J believe/hope/think)
for future facts
for plans and arrangements
I'll answer the phone.

I think it will be a cold winter this year.

Our school holidays will start in July.
We'll meet you outside the cinema at 7:30.

Notes
Shall is often used instead of will with/, especially in the interrogative, e.g. Shall I wait here?

GOING TO

form    be + going to + infinitive without to

+ I am going to fall. You are going to fall. He/She/It is going to fall. We/You/They are going to fall.

– I am not going to fall. You are not going to fall. He/She/It is not going to fall. We/You/They are not going to fall.

? Am I going to fall? Are you going to fall? Is he/she/it going to fall? Are we/you/they going to fall?

use example
for intentions and plans made before the moment of speaking
for predictions based on clear evidence
I'm going to study English next year.

That baby is going to fall!

MODAL VERBS

form    modal + infinitive without 'to'

Note: Modal verbs are: can, could, may, might, shall, will, should, would, ought to, must, have to

use >example
to talk about possibility

to talk about probability
to talk about near certainty
to talk about negative certainty
to talk about certainty
to talk about obligation/necessity


to talk about lack of obligation/necessity
to give advice

to talk about permission

to talk about ability/inability

to talk about prohibition
>It may be cold in Scotland, so pack a jumper.
It could rain today.
The plane should arrive about now.
She's won the lottery — she must be excited!
This can't be the right road.
My birthday will be on a Tuesday this year.
He has to do his homework this evening.
I have to write to my parents this week.
You ought to/should/must take some exercise.
You don't have to do the washing up.
We don't have to pay to get into the museum.
You shouldn't stay up so late every night.
You ought to save a bit more money.
Yes, you can go to town this afternoon. \
You may borrow my bike.
He can't do maths.
I could bake a cake if I had the time.
You mustn't walk on the grass in the

FIRST CONDITIONAL

form    conditional clause: if + present simple
main clause: will + infinitive without 'to'

use example
for future events which are likely to happen If you hurry, you will catch your plane.

SECOND CONDITIONAL

form    conditional clause: if + past simple
main clause: would + infinitive without 'to'

use example
for less likely or hypothetical events
in the future
to give advice
If I gave up work, I would travel round the world.
If you worked harder; you would pass your exam.

Note:

  • We use even if for emphasis, e.g. Even if he had a part-time job, he would work just as hard.
  • After if, we sometimes use were instead of was, especially in a formal style, e.g. If I were a millionaire, I'd buy an island.

ZERO CONDITIONAL

form    conditional clause: if + present simple
main clause: infinitive without 'to'/imperative

use example
for general rules or truths
to show cause and effect
for commands
If there is no rain, many plants die.
If you eat fruit and vegetables, you feel healthy.
If it starts to rain, go inside.

Note:

  • When can also be used in these conditionals, e g When the lesson begins, please be quiet.

THE PASSIVE

form    be + past participle
The passive is formed by making the object of the active clause into the subject of the new clause.

tense example
Present Simple

Past Simple

Present Continuous

Past Continuous

Present Perfect

Past Perfect

Modal Verbs
They make this cheese in France.
→ This cheese is made in France.
They invented bungee jumping in New Zealand.
→ Bungee jumping was invented in New Zealand.
They are decorating their house this week.
→ Their house is being decorated this week.
She was feeding my cat at the weekend.
→ My cat was being fed at the weekend.
They closed the disco for a month.
→ The disco was closed for a month.
He had caught the fish.
→ The fish had been caught.
Two people can move the piano.
→ The piano can be moved by two people.

use example
when the persor or thing doing the action is obvious or unimportant
when the person or thing doing the action is not known
to describe how something is made or how it works
The house was built in a month.

Stonehenge was constructed in about 3000 BC.
Glass is made from sand, soda and limestone.

Note:

  • We use by + person/thing when we want to emphasise who or what did something, e.g. Hadrian's Wall was built by the Romans in the first century AD.

RELATIVE CLAUSES

pronoun use example
who

whose
which

where
when
why
for people

possessive of who
for things

for places
for time
for reasons
People who live in glass houses shouldn't throw stones.
Whose bicycle is this?
The book which my brother gave me was really exciting.
I saw the house where my mother was born.
That was a time when he travelled a lot.
I don't know why she is so annoyed.

Note

  • *Sometimes we can use that instead of which, e g The book that my brother gave me is really exciting.
  • *Commas are used in non-defining relative clauses which give extra or unessential information, e.g. The book, which my brother gave me for my birthday, is really exciting.
  • *No commas are used in defining relative clauses which give essential information, e.g. This is the book that/which my brother gave me.

REPORTED SPEECH: TENSES

form    We usually change the tenses and some other words when we report what someone said.

direct speech reported speech
present simple
→ My sister is a ballet dancer'

present continuous
→ 'I'm writing to my boyfriend,'

past simple
→ 'We went for a walk.'
past continuous
→ 'I was walking in the forest all day.'
present perfect simple
→ 'I have cooked the dinner'
present perfect continuous
→ 'I've been learning English for a year.'
past simple
She said (that) her sister was a ballet dancer.
past continuous
She said (that) she was writing to her boyfriend.
past perfect simple
They said (that) they had gone for a walk.
past perfect continuous
He said (that) he had been walking in the forest all day.
past perfect simple
She said (that) she had cooked the dinner.
past perfect continuous
He said (that) he had been learning English for a year.

Note

  • I sometimes changes to he or she.
  • My sometimes changes to her or his. Our changes to their.
  • The adjectives this, that these and those usually change to the.
    e.g. 'I like these grapes.' → He/She said he/she liked the grapes.
  • The pronouns this and that usually change to it.
    e.g. 'I want to paint this blue.' → 'He/She said he/she wanted to paint it blue. The pronouns these and those usually change to them.

REPORTED SPEECH: MODALVERBS

direct speech reported speech
'I'll help you tidy your room.'
'I can run very fast.'
'I may go out this evening.'
'I'll offer to help my grandmother tomorrow.'
'You must tidy your room.'
He said (that) he would help her tidy her room.
She said (that) she could run very fast.
She said that she might go out that evening.
He said that he would offer to help his grandmother the following day.
She told him that he must tidy his room.

REPORTED SPEECH: ADVERBS OF TIME AND PLACE

direct speech reported speech
here
now
tomorrow
last (night)
today
ago
yesterday
next (week)
next (Wednesday)
this (morning)
there
then/at that moment
the next day/the following day
the (night) before/the previous (night)
that day
before/previously
the day before/the previous day
the following (week)/the (week) after (that)
the following (Wednesday)
that (morning)

REPORTED QUESTIONS

form    Reported questions have the same word order as statements.
Reporting verbs (e.g. asked) are used.
For yes/no questions, the reported questions begin with if/whether.
For wh-questions, the question words (who, which, when, where, why, whom, whose, how) are repeated in the reported question.

direct question reported question
Do you want to go swimming?
How did you make the cake?
He asked her if she wanted to go swimming.
I asked him how he had made the cake.

INDIRECT QUESTIONS

form    Indirect questions do not have the question word order and the auxiliary do is not used. There is no tense change in indirect questions.

useTo make questions sound more polite and formal.

Note    Indirect questions begin with expressions like:

Could you tell me...? Would you mind telling me...? Do you know... ?

direct question indirect question
Why did you go to town?
How do you turn the computer on?
What time are you leaving?
Would you mind telling me why you went to town?
Could I ask how you turn the computer on?
Could you tell me what time you are leaving?

TIME CLAUSES

time expression example
until/by the time = up to the
time when
by = not later than
when = at the time
as soon as = immediately
after
before = earlier than
after = later than
once = after
while/as
in case = because
(condition)
You must stay until the President gets here.
By the time he arrives, the boat will have left.
Let me know by Sunday if you can come.
My voice hurts when I speak.
As soon as dinner is cooked, we will eat!
I must get to the bank before it closes.
I will ring you after Mark has left.
Once I have decided where to go, I will book my holiday.
He rang while I was watching television.
I saw him as I left the office.
I will take my umbrella in case it rains.

GERUNDS AND INFINITIVES

gerund
(-ing form used as noun)
infinitive
with to
infinitive
without to
Swimming is good for you. I enjoy swimming. Common verbs and phrases followed by a gerund -ing form: admit, avoid deny, can't help, do you mind?, consider, dislike, enjoy, feel like, finish, give up, imagine, mention, practise, risk, suggest I want to watch TV this evening.
Common verbs and phrases followed by an infinitive with to: afford, agree, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, begin*, can't stand*, care, choose, consent continue, decide, expect, fail, forget, happen, hate*, help, hesitate, hope, intend*, learn, like*, love*, manage, mean, offer, ought, prefer*, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, regret*, remember*, seem, start*, swear, try* want wish
I would rather play tennis.
Common verbs and phrases followed by an infinitive without to: can, could, may, might, must, shall, will, would rather

Note: The verbs marked * can be followed by either an infinitive without to or a gerund -ing form, but there may be a change in meaning.

QUESTION TAGS

Question tags often follow sentences in speech and informal writing. We use them when we want to check if something is true.

use example
This is a regular statement but if we are not sure, we can check by adding a question tag. We are playing tennis this afternoon, aren't we?

The meaning of a question tag is: 'is it true?' 'Do you agree?'

form example
We make the question tag in the same way we make an ordinary question. It consists of an auxiliary + a pronoun. But when the main sentence is positive, the question tag is negative.
When the main sentence is negative, the question tag is positive.
She is very nice, isn't she?




You don't know the answer, do you?

use example
If there is only the verb be in the main sentence, we repeat it in the question tag. It is a nice day, isn't it?
Mrs Green wasn't at home, was she?

But: I'm very late, aren'tI?
The question tag for I'm is aren't I?

use example
If there is a modal auxiliary verb (can, could, must, should, will, would, etc.) in the main sentence, we repeat it in the question tag.
If there is an auxiliary verb (be, have, do) in the main sentence, we repeat it in the question tag.



If there is no auxiliary verb in the main sentence, we use do in the question tag.
You can't understand me, can you?
They should be here, shouldn't they?
Peter could help us, couldn't he?
You won't tell anyone, will you?
She is doing well, isn't she?
It was raining, wasn't it?
You haven't seen Jack, have you?
Your mum doesn't speak German, does she?
She didn't lose the tickets, did she?
You play the piano, don't you?
Tim gave you this book, didn't he?
 


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