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Unit 2


READING

 

Make a Top Five List of your favourite jobs. Compare it with a partner.

Read the job advertisements quickly. Which advertisement (A-E) mentions:

  • 1 work in a fashion industry?
  • 2 work with tourists?
  • 3 work with children?
  • 4 office work?
  • 5 work at training courses for adults?
WORD
FILE
IT = information technology
an experience [ık'spıǝriǝns]
a qualification [.kwɑlıfı'keıʃn]
a quality ['kwɑlǝti]
a requirement [rı'kwaıǝmǝnt]
staff [sta:f]
to earn
[ɜ:n]
to provide [prǝ'vaıd]
to require [rı'kwaıǝ]
to seek [si:k]
desirable [dı'zaıǝrǝbl]
fluent ['flu:ǝnt]
essential [ı'senʃl]
valuable ['væljuǝbl]

'an advancement [ǝdva:nsmǝnt] — просування уперед; кар'єрний ріст

Read the advertisements on pages 20-21 again and refer the statements below to each advertisement.

1 This work requires an ability to act both independently and also as part of a team ….....  B 

2 This work requires both computer knowledge and teaching experience .......................................     

3 They have vacancies for various kinds of people, but they have to speak more than one language ….     

4 They need a person who can drive a car …........     

5 The applicants for this job need a special education and good analytical abilities .........................…    



Match the words with their definitions.

1 to seek
2 IT skills
3 a requirement
4 a qualification
5 essential
6 staff
7 an employment
agency
a very important for doing something (advert. A)
b ability to work with Information Technology (B)
c to look very hard for someone (C)
d a business that makes money by finding jobs for
people (A)
e the achievement of passing exams for a particular
job (A)
f something that is needed or asked (E)
g people who work for an organisation, especially for
business (D)
Work in groups. Choose one of the advertisements (pages 20-21) and discuss all the requirements which are asked.

Work in pairs. Play the 'Guess the Profession' game.

Pupil A, write a profession on a piece of paper (teacher, pilot, cook, etc.). Pupil B, try to guess the name of the profession. Ask questions using the adjectives in the box.

active, attentive, diplomatic, disciplined, cooperative, energetic, enthusiastic, imaginative, logical, optimistic, positive, practical, realistic, systematic, tactful, skilled, talented, willing to travel

VOCABULARY

Match the jobs with the skills they need.

1 bricklayer
2 carpenter
3 plumber
4 electrician
5 mechanic
a a skill to fit and repair electrical things
b a skill to repair cars
c a skill to make things using wood
d a skill to build walls
e a skill to fit and repair water pipes, bathrooms, etc.
Complete each column with two more jobs. Use a dictionary if necessary.

-er -or -ist -ian others
plumber actor scientist librarian pilot
lawyer conductor psychologist electrician accountant

VOCALIBRARI
POINT
OCCUPATION means an activity in which one is engaged; the state of being occupied.
Example: Which occupation will he choose himself?
Look for an occupation suited to your abilities.
PROFESSION is an occupation in which special education or training is required, as the profession of an architect.
Example: Law, Architecture and Medicine are professions.
TRADE is a skilled occupation, especially in handicraft, an occupation requiring mechanical skill.
Example: Dressmaking is a useful trade.
He is a hairdresser (tailor; blacksmith) by trade.
Group up the words from the box into the columns below. For some words more than one column is possible.

advertising, building, fashion, legal, manufacturing, medical, music, shipping, teaching, tourisml

business trade profession industry
       

Write four sentences about real people who have jobs in any of the above areas.

Example: My granddad works in the building industry as an architect. It is his profession.


GRAMMAR

TENSE REVISION

Complete the sentences (A-C) to make the rules.

Present Perfect, Past Simple, Present Perfect Continuous
  1. A. We use the ... to mention about the events in the past.
    Example: I visited my aunt last weekend.

  2. B. We use the ... to talk about the results and completed actions or events that are connected with the present.
    Example: I've lived in this town for 6 years.
    My brother has been to London.
    Jane has already done her homework. Look!


  3. C. We use the ... to talk about an action that began in the past and is still in progress or an action that has recently stopped and which explains the present situation.
    Example: I've been working for this company since 2002.
    David has been playing tennis so he's really tired.
Complete the profile by changing the form of the verb in brackets using the Past Simple or the Present Perfect.

Profile: CHRISTOPHER JONES

Christopher Jones is an English language teacher. He ... (be) always good at languages at school, so he ... (decide) to take his degree in French and German. When he ... (finish) his university studies, he ... (begin) teaching in a secondary school in England. Two years later, however, he ... (meet) someone by chance who ... (offer) him a job teaching English to foreign students during the long summer holidays. His students ... (be) adults and he ... (enjoy) the work greatly. He soon ... (find) he ... (be) more interested in teaching his own language to foreigners than foreign languages to English schoolboys.

Since then he ... (specialise) in this work. He ... (find) that one of the advantages of the job was that it enabled him to find work almost everywhere in the world. First he ... (go) to Africa for 2 years and then he ... (spend) a year in Arabia. After this he ... (go) to Greece where he ... (work) for the last 3 years. He ... (not, be) to South America yet but he wants to go there next. He ... (teach) men and women of all ages and of various nationalities. He also ... (learn) to get on with all kinds of people and to adjust to different ways of life. So far he ... (not, regret) his decision to follow this career.

Choose the correct word or phrase in brackets.

  1. How long (have you had I have you been having) your car?
  2. Ron (worked I has been working) as a postman for the past month.
  3. Mary (has been finding I has found) a good job.
  4. I (have written / have been writing) an essay all day.
  5. How long (have you been living I do you live) in Kyiv?
Use the Present Perfect or the Present Perfect Continuous with the verbs in brackets.

A: How long ... you ... (try) to find a job?
B: For three years. It... (be) really difficult.
A: How many jobs ... you ... (have)?
B: About thirty, maybe more I ... (do) everything.
A: How long ... you ... (stand) here today?
B: I ... (wait) since 8:00 this morning, and I'm freezing.
GRAMMAR
POINT
PRESENT PERFECT vs
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS
  • We use the Present Perfect Continuous for incomplete actions which were in progress over a period of time in the past. With recently completed actions we use the Present Perfect. We have been living in Kyiv for 12 years. (We're still there now.) They've lived in Luhansk, Donetsk and Dnipropetrovsk. (They aren't there now.)
  • We often use the Present Perfect Continuous with 'how long'. If we ask 'how often' or 'how much/many' we use the Present Perfect.

    How long has she been sleeping?
    How often have you worn that suit?
    How many English lessons have you had?

Write sentences with the Present Perfect Continuous adding 'for' or 'since'.

Example: she / work there / 2003
She's been working there since 2003.

1 how long / they / go out together?
2 I / study English / eight years.
3 you / read that book / months!
4 you / wait / a long time?
5 how long / she / live there?
6 I / rent this flat / three years,
7 she / work here / a long time?

Work in pairs. Role-play the situation.

It is Friday evening. One of you has decided to phone the other for a chat. Ask and answer questions about what you've been doing this week.

LISTENING

Think of a job. Your partner tries to guess it asking questions.

Do you work in an office?
Do you drive a car?
Do you wear a uniform?

Unscramble[1] the names of the jobs you are going to listen about.

stemsy ministradator — ...
naljourist —...
countacant — ...

WORD
FILE
safety [‘seıfti]
a vacancy ['veıkǝnsi]
to apply [ǝ'plaı]
to graduate ['græʤjueıt] (from)
to offer ['ɒfǝ]
• to be responsible [rı'spɑnsǝbl] for
• to be satisfied ['sætısfaıd] with
• to be well-paid [,wel-'peıd]

1 to unscramble [ʌn'skræmbl] — розшифровувати

Work in pairs. Identify the words that are missing from the sentences in exercise 4.

Listen to three people and complete the sentences.

  1. She has already been working at this ... for 10 years.
  2. She is a professional with broad work ....
  3. He chose this creative ... because he was a creative person.
  4. They all work as ... .
  5. He is ... for the safety of all documents and files.
  6. All his ... respect him for his professionalism.
Listen to three people and complete the sentences.

  1. Is it necessary to get higher education if you want to become an accountant?
  2. Why does an accountant need to get additional education? What ways can he/she get it?
  3. What is the journalist who works in some local newspaper responsible for?
  4. What way can you characterise the profession of a journalist?
  5. What does the occupation of a system administrator require?
Talk with a partner on the following.

Are your parents satisfied with their present jobs? What are their responsibilities? What are the advantages and disadvantages of your father's/mother's job?

SPEAKING

Read the interview and match the questions with the answers.
Act out the interview in pairs.

1 What's your name?
2 How old are you?
3 What do you do?
4 Where do you work?
5 What do you wear to work?
6 How much do you earn?
7 What do you spend it on?
a £ 200 rent per month, £ 200 clothes, £ 50 bank, £ 60 petrol, £ 40 magazines and books,
b Radio reporter for The Word, a daily magazine programme on London's Kiss 100 FM.
c Kiss House, Holloway Road, London.
d 27.
e Lisa Sharon.
f £ 15,000 — £ 20,000 per year, including TV work.
g Everything goes — casual[2].

2 casual ['кæʒuǝl] — буденний; (тут) як завжди

a) Work in pairs. Read the dialogue and make a similar one. Use some of the phrases in the box below.

A: Are there any interesting jobs in the paper today?

B: Well, here's one for a tour guide. But you have to work on Saturdays and Sundays.

A: I don't want to work on weekends.

B: Neither do I. Oh, there's another one here for a salesperson. It's a job selling children's books.

A: Sounds interesting.

B: Yes, but you need a driver's license, and I can't drive.

A: Oh, I can! I just got my license. What's the phone number?

B: It's 798-3455.

b) Present your dialogue in class.

USEFUL
PHRASES

Talking about people

What are the advantages/disadvantages?
The job in ... seems a better choice because...
From the information we have, it seems that... would be good.
I'd prefer the job...
The job ... doesn't sound very suitable for me because...

Make up questions to interview Chris Jones (see page 24, ex. 2).
Get ready to role-play the interview in pairs in class.

Work in groups. Discuss which of the jobs in Ukraine:

a are normally done by women?
b are generally well-paid?
c require a lot of training?
d are very stress ful?
e have long holidays?
f are dangerous?

USE YOUR ENGLISH

Complete the interview by changing the forms of the verbs in brackets.

Interviewer: So, how long ... you ... (live) here?

Mary: For about 6 months now.

I: Why did you choose Beirut?

M: Because my husband John and I ... always ... (love) Arab culture and the language. John's an English teacher and he … (get) a job here in a language school.

I: Why did you want to take a year off?

M: Basically I ... (want) a break from teaching. I love teaching children but I ... (need) a change. Also I ... (draw and paint) since I was little but I ... never really ... (have) the chance to study drawing. So this ... (seem) like the perfect opportunity to have a change and learn to draw properly.

I: What... you ... (do) here since you arrived?

M: Weil, ... (find) a fantastic art teacher, called Fatima, and I ... (have) classes with her since October. She's great and she ... (speak) English, which is lucky because I don't know much Arabic yet. But I ... (learn).

I: Is Arabic a difficult language to learn?

M: Very difficult! Especially the pronunciation.

Play the vocabulary game.

  1. In pairs, try to write as many different jobs as you can in five minutes.
  2. The pair with the longest list reads it aloud. If you have the job you hear on your list, cross it out. The pair with the longest list with the jobs left is the winner.
Read four newspaper advertisements about vacancies.
a) Listen to the people who estimate their chances to get a job.


Role-play the situation in pairs.

WORD
FILE
an applicant ['æplıkǝnt]
a Bachelor's
degree
a Master's

a salary ['sælǝri]
• to apply for a job

Pupil A, you are speaking with a person who works in the field which you may choose as your future career, for example, an interpreter, an accountant, an editor, etc. You can ask your partner:

• whether his/her job requires a lot of skills (knowledge, education, practice);

• where he/she got the necessary skills (knowledge, education, practice);

• what he/she advises you to do to become better acquainted with this trade or profession.

Pupil B, answer the pupil A's questions and mention the advantages and disadvantages of your job.

Work in groups. Exchange your opinions about different occupations which require the following:

  • working indoors/outdoors
  • meeting new people
  • helping people
  • having long holidays
  • getting up very early
  • having long working hours
  • working night shifts
  • working under pressure
  • earning a lot of money
  • doing manual work
  • learning more
  • travelling a lot
  • being creative
  • being inventive
  • being risky
Work in groups. Exchange your opinions about different occupations which require the following:

  • what you know about it
  • what qualifications you will need
  • why it attracts you
  • why you think this kind of career will suit you
WRITING

a) Read and choose three types of writing that you find the most useful for your writing priorities.

TYPES OF WRITING
Personal & Social Writing Study Writing (Personal) Professional Writing
diaries making notes form filling CVs
recipes while studying letters of: reports
shopping lists making notes — request reviews
reminders from lectures — complaint contracts
letters to family/friends summaries — apology memos
notes (instructions) reports — application  
phone messages essays    

b) Compare and discuss your answers with your classmate(s).

c) Report your findings to the class.

a) Get some information and name the types and styles of letters mentioned in the text.

Letters are pieces of writing usually written to a person or a group of people for a specific purpose. There are various types of letters and your choice depends on your reasons for writing. The most common reasons are: requesting or giving information, giving or asking for an opinion, applying for a position, etc.

1 a PROPER GREETING
2 an INTRODUCTION stating the reason(s) for writing
3 a BODY developing the topic of the letter where each new point is written in a new paragraph
4 a CONCLUSION summarising the topic and including some closing remarks
5 a PROPER ENDING

Any letter consists of:

There are three styles of letter depending on the person you addressed to:

  • INFORMAL LETTERS are written to the members of the family or people you know well.
  • SEMI-FORMAL LETTERS are written to people you do not know well and to whom you want to show politeness and respect.
  • FORMAL LETTERS are written to people you do not know or people in authority[3]

3 people in authority [ɔ:'Ɵrıti] — керівники, посадові особи

b) Put the parts of the letter in a proper order.

 
a) Read the advertisement below and the letter on page 33.
Then answer the questions.
  • What is the style of the letter? Why?
  • What is the purpose of the letter? Is it personal or professional?
  • Name the type of the letter.
b) Refer the headings to the appropriate parts of the letter.

• the places she visited
• addresses she is writing to
• her knowledge of languages
• the things she is good at
• her personal qualities
• sender's address
• reason for writing
• sender's signature
• signing off
• sender's name
• greeting
• date
Write your own of application for a job as a Happy Holidays host or hostess.

VOCABULARY

Complete the text choosing the appropriate words from the box.

staff, experience, profession, requires, application, apply, well-paid, salary, graduated, fluently, Master's degree, offers, Bachelor's degree

My cousin Liza is an interpreter. She gets a good (1)... . Liza speaks English and French (2)... . She studied at the university and travelled a lot. It helped her to improve her language skills, learn more about culture and traditions. Liza has an (3)... of working as an interpreter for seven years.

My older brother Denis is a manager. His job is (4).... Although it is sometimes difficult to get in touch with him during the day, but his (5)... is very interesting.

First he (6)... from a university where he got (7) in economics. Denis' work (8)... a lot of teamwork. I know he is quite successful. I'm proud of him.

As for me, I am a secretary at a textile factory. We receive many letters of (9)..., because our factory (10)... good work conditions. Next year I am going to get a

(11) in psychology and to (12)... for a position of a personnel manager. I know the director needs a person who can help to work with the (13)....

GRAMMAR

Complete the dialogues with the Past Simple or the Present Perfect.
  1. 1 A: How long ... at university? (you/be)
    B: I ... two years ago. I'm in my third year now. (start)
    A: Do you live with your parents?
  2. B: I ... with them for the first two years but I ... into a student hostel last September and I ... there since then, (live, move, live)
    2 A: ... a job yet? (your brother / find)
  3. B: Yes, he ... work in a hotel, (just/start)

LISTENING

a) Listen and say what kind of information it is.

b) Listen again. Copy and complete the form with the information about the applicant.

READING

a) Listen and say what kind of information it is.

b) Listen again. Copy and complete the form with the information about the applicant.
A junior school teacher in Britain:
a earns about... thousand pound year
b trains for... years
c works about... hours a day
d starts work at about... o'clock
e finishes work at about... o'clock

Name: Kelly Barrow

Age: 28

Job: «Classroom teacher in a junior school in North London.»

Training: «I'm originally from Australia, and spent three years at university training for my diploma of education.»

Skills: «I'm responsible for information and technology at the school, as well as teaching. The children are the highlight[1] of my day, compared with all the paperwork.»

Hours: «8 am to 5 pm. After class I work on the computers, and once a week I do a computing course, finishing at 7 pm.»

Salary: «I survive comfortably on £ 16,000, but since I haven't lived here for very long I don't think I have as many financial commitments[2] as others.»

Expenses: «I rent a flat in North London: my rent's £ 350 a month. I always have an enormous phone bill about £ 170 — because of telephoning to Australia. I like to entertain and have parties. I'm trying to save £ 200 a month for a trip abroad.»


1 a highlight ['haılaıt] — основний момент
1 a commitment [kǝ'mıtmǝnt] — зобов'язання

c) Write questions for the sentences in (b).

Example: What is the salary of a junior school teacher in Britain?

 


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