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Unit 3



READING

 

Work with a partner and discuss the following items.
  • If you ask students about school, their first reaction is usually very different. Why is that so?
  • Can you imagine life without school? Why / why not?
Read a student's essay about school on page 37 quickly and match the questions (1-6) to the paragraphs (A-F).
  • 1 Why do some students like going to school, while others don't?
  • 2 Does school deal only with class activities on different subjects?
  • 3 What way does school provide students with knowledge?
  • 4 Where do we spend considerable time with our friends?
  • 5 What's the difference between the Internet and school?
  • 6 What other skills does school develop except the educational ones?
Read the essay again and decide whether the statements are true (T) or false (F).
  • 1 Both the Internet and school provide students with knowledge.
  • 2 School provides young people with critical thinking and social skills.
  • 3 If you have an interest in going on to higher education you will find school as an interesting place.
  • 4 School is the place of formal education.
  • 5 School provides with opportunities to develop students' talents.
  • 6 Friends are people with whom we spend considerable time going to school.
  • 7 Everybody should realise that school is one of the main social environments for young people.
Match the words with the definitions.

1 a curriculum
a to learn or develop knowledge, skills by your own efforts
2 a knowledge b the subjects that are taught by a school or the things that are studied in a particular subject
3 a skill c the facts, skills and understanding that you have gained through learning or experience
4 successful d being the one that you are talking about, and not any other
5 particular e admiration for someone, especially because of their personal qualities, knowledge or skill
6 to acquire f an ability to do something well, especially because you have learned and practised it
7 a respect g having very good effect or result


1 a grade — (тут) оцінка
2 considerable [kǝn'sıdǝrǝbl] — значний

Work in pairs. Take turns asking and answering the questions.

  1. Do you like school?
  2. Do you know anybody who hates school? Why does he/she hate it?
  3. In what subjects are you doing well?
  4. Are you pressed by your parents and teachers?
  5. How many friends do you have among your classmates?
  6. What grades do they get in most subjects? In English?
  7. Do you use the Internet? What for?
  8. Can the Internet help in your study? Prove.
  9. What extracurricular activities do you or your friends take part in?
  10. Do you take part in any sports competitions?
Read the British teenagers' opinions of their schools. Compare them with your own opinions.


3 otherwise [ʌoǝwaız] — інакше

VOCABULARY

Read the British teenagers' opinions of their schools. Compare them with your own opinions.

boarding school, graduate, head teacher, nursery school, primary school, private school, secondary school, state school
  1. ... is a school paid by the government[4] which gives free education.
  2. ... is a non-government school where you have to pay.
  3. ... is a school for very young children at the age of 1-4.
  4. ... is a school for young children from 4 to 11 years old.
  5. ... is a school for older children from 11 to 18.
  6. ... is a school where pupils live, eat, and sleep.
  7. ... is a 'boss' of a school.
  8. ... is a person who has finished university and has a degree (e.g. in economics).

4 a government [gʌvǝnmǝnt] — уряд

VOCALIBRARI
POINT
to learn
1 We learn something so that we get some practical skills and know how to do it.
Example: I'm learning to be a hairdresser.
How long have you been learning English?
Where did you learn to drive?

2 We learn facts, words, numbers or lines (often by heart).
Example: Mary has learned the poem well.
3 We can learn something in the meaning 'find out'.
Example: We learned the details later.
We learned about it from newspapers.
to study
1 We study something so that we get the theory of the subject (especially by reading books about it and attending classes at school or college).
Example: Robert studies to be a doctor. At 17 he moved to Kyiv to study law there.
In Britain less than 10% of girls choose to study science at school.
But:
(school) to go to school, to be at school (university) to be at university, to be a student
NOTE!
Choose 'learn' or 'study' and put it in a correct tense form to complete the sentences.

1 You must... this poem. 2 We must... the map before we start our journey. 3 She ... to be a doctor by watching the work of her more experienced colleagues. 4 Mary ... to swim. 5 We soon ... to do as we were told in Mr Hughes' class! 6 Mike … medicine at college because he wants to be a doctor. 7 I'm trying to ... Spanish. 8 I ... to ride a bike when I was five.

GRAMMAR

GRAMMAR
POINT
CONDITIONALS (Умовні речення)

Conditionals are two parts sentences which are connected with the word 'if'. With all conditionals, when we start the sentence with 'if, we must use a comma. When 'if is in the middle of the sentence, we don't use a comma.

Example: If you smoke too much, you will die.
You will be fat if you eat fish and chips everyday.

 

1st Conditionals (Умовні речення 1-го типу)
We use the 1st Conditional to express the strong possibility that something will happen in the future. We can also use it to make predictions about things we are sure about.
1 st Conditional = if + Present Simple + Future Simple (or Modal + Infinitive)

Note: We use a comma after the 'if-clause'.

Example: If you leave now, you will catch< the bus.
1 st Conditional = Future Simple (or Modal + Infinitive) + if + Present Simple

Note: We don't use comma in the sentence.

Example: You will catch the bus if you leave now.

Match to make up 1st conditional sentences.
Example: If you drop that plate, it wi!! break into a million pieces.

you drop that plate •
• I'll throw the magazine away
he doesn't know the answer • • she probably will fail the exam
you are hungry • • you can tell them you'll be late
you call them now • • you can still get the early train
Carla doesn't study • • he can find the answer for you
I give you my number • • it will break into a million pieces
you don't want to read it • • you can get something to eat
you hurry • • she will miss the opening ceremony
she arrives late • • you can call me tomorrow

Complete each sentence in your own way.

  1. If I don't get into university ...
  2. I'll have a big party if...
  3. If I pass my exams well...
  4. We won't get a plane if...
  5. If I get my first salary...
  6. You'll fail the exam if...
  7. He'll be late for work if...
Complete the sentence (b) in each pair so that it has a similar meaning to the sentence (a).

  1. a) There aren't many TV programmes about science, so people don't know much about it.
    b) If there ... more TV programmes about science, people ... more about it.
  2. a) Other intelligent beings might inhabit the Universe. If so, they would be very different from us.
    b) If other intelligent beings ... the Universe, they ... very different from us.
  3. a) It's likely there is life on other planets. If so, we are not alone.
    b) If there ... life on other planets, we ... not alone.
  4. a) The world's population will probably continue to increase. If so, we will need more food.
    b) If the world's population ... to increase, we ... more food.
Correct the tense forms of the verbs in bold to make 1st conditionals.

Example: Don't wait for me if I will be late.
Don't wait for me if I am late.

  1. Will you call me if I'll give you my number?
  2. Do you mind if I will borrow your dictionary?
  3. I get hungry if I will not eat anything.
  4. The food spoil if the fridge is turned off.
  5. Is it OK if I will take your bike to the store?
  6. Will they read this magazine if I could leave it?
  7. The ground gets wet if it can rains.
Put the words in the correct order to make 1st conditionals.

  1. If / he / Albert / will go / can / his / bicycle, / repair / cycling.
  2. by bus / Ben / to school / if / he / will come / is late.
  3. You / look out / will not see / if / you / the square / of the window.
  4. shall see / the history museum / old / things / if / We / is open.
  5. Mary / to the theatre / won't go / cannot get / if / she / a ticket.
Complete the sentences by changing the form of the verb in brackets.

Example: If she ... (need) a radio she can borrow mine.
If she needs a radio she can borrow mine.

  1. If he ... (go) on telling lies nobody will believe a word he says.
  2. If he ... (like) the house will he buy it?
  3. If you come late they ... (not let) you in.
  4. He'll be late for the train if he ... (not start) at once.
  5. If you put on the kettle I ... (make) the tea.
  6. If he ... (be) late we'll go without him.
  7. I'll be very angry if he ... (make) any more mistakes.
LISTENING

Brush up what you have already known about schools in Britain. Choose the right item. Check your partner's answers.

  1. In Great Britain school begins at the age of... .
    a) 5-6   b) 4-5   c) 6-7
  2. The 1st schools to which children go are called ... .
    a) secondary schools b) junior schools c) infant schools
  3. They leave their primary school when they are ... .
    a) 8   b) 11   c) 10
  4. They take the national General Certificate in Secondary Education exams at the age of... .
    a) 11   b)18   c) 16
  5. To enter the British university you should ....
    a) take 'A' level exams
    b) attend preparatory course
    c) take GCSE exams

Work in pairs. Identify the type of words that are missing from the sentences in exercise 4.

Listen and check up your answers in exercise 1.

Listen again and complete the sentences with the words from the box.

courses, independent, opportunities, Advanced, junior, available, public, compulsory, boarding, comprehensive
  1. Primary education includes infant schools and ... schools.
  2. ... secondary education starts at the age of 11-12 and lasts 5 years.
  3. Most British children get their secondary education at... school.
  4. Many pupils at the age of 16 leave school and go to a college to choose more practical ....
  5. Pupils who decide to enter a university should pass ... level exams.
  6. Secondary education is ... to all children in Britain.
  7. Only less than 5 per cent go to ... schools.
  8. Private schools where pupils of 13-19 years olds study are called ... schools.
  9. The schools where pupils live and study are called ... schools.
  10. Many people believe that children should have equal ... at the start.
basic
private
junior
schooling
available
provided
senior
compulsory
educational
primary
curriculum
grades
Complete the text with the words from the box.

Schooling in Ukraine

As a rule, schooling begins at the age of 6.

The Ukrainian educational system is organised into four levels: primary, secondary, higher and post-secondary education.

General secondary education is ... . Post-secondary education is ... in different ways. Primary and secondary school has three stages: ..., basic and senior.

Primary school comprises ... 1 to 4. Grades 5-9 are usually referred to as '...school', while 10-12 are '... school'. Students usually study in the same school building throughout their primary and secondary education. Primary ... lasts 4 years and basic school 5. The middle school ... varies slightly between schools. There are then 3 profile years. New types of schools appeared: gymnasiums, lycees and ... schools.

Post secondary education is ... by vocational training schools, universities and institutes. Higher education gives different qualifications: ... specialist (Bachelor's), specialist and Master's Degree. Higher education is either state funded or private. Ukraine cooperates with more than 50 international ... organisations.

Work in pairs. Take turns asking and answering the questions.

  • What do you know about the system of education in our country?
  • Is elementary school compulsory in Ukraine?
  • At what age do children start going tc school in our country? What types of schools are there in Ukraine?
  • Which school subjects do you have? Why?
SPEAKING

Talk with your partner on the following items.

  • What does your classroom look like? Would you like to change anything about your class?
  • What is your favourite subject? Why do you like it?
  • How do you prepare for lessons? Do you often forget to do your homework? Are you a hard-working student?
  • Have you ever been late for school? When? Why? What happened?
  • Would you like to be a teacher? Why? / Why not?
  • What kind of activities do you have at school? Do you participate in any of them?
USEFUL
PHRASES

Asking for an opinion
What do you think about...?
How do you feel about...?
What's your opinion of... ?
Agreeing
I'd go along with that.
You've got a point there.
I think so, too.
Great minds think alike.
Disagreeing
Not sure.
Yes, but...
I don't agree...
Maybe, ... but...
I don't think so.
The problem's that...
Speak about your schooling.

  1. When did you start school?
  2. What school was it?
  3. Have you ever changed schools? Why?
  4. What exams have you taken (are going to take)?
  5. What are your plans for the future?
a) Work in groups. Agree or disagree the statements below. Write down at least three reasons for each statement.



5 'optional ['ɒpʃjǝnl] — необов'язковий; факультативний

b) Present your ideas for one of the statements above to the class.
The others should listen and say if they agree or disagree with your group's arguments and why.

First of all...
Another important point is that...
Finally...

Work in groups. Discuss the following.

  • What would you change about the system of education in our country?

USE YOUR ENGLISH

Match to make the sentences.

  e  1 She won't start primary school
a if I finish my exams
     2 She won't pass her exams b if she gets good marks
     3 I’ll have to go to a new school c I'll do my homework at once
     4 If I get home d if she doesn't study hard
     5 I think I'll go on holiday e if she isn't four years old
     6 Her parents will get her a present f if I pass my 'A' level exams

Complete the article with the correct words or phrases from the list below.

American Schools

Americans have always aimed for equal (1) b in education. Americans spend six years in (2) ... school, four or six years in (3) ... or high school. At the end of every school year the pupil (4) … … . If he doesn't (5) … …, he has to repeat a year once more. If he (6) … …, he goes into the next class. School (7) ... is free.

At more (8) ... level pupils can choose some subjects. Pupils take an active part in (9) ... activity. Many different sports are also (10) ... .

At the end of their time at school, most students get a (11) ... school diploma. If they want to go to college, they (12)... college admission tests. Teaching in the country is usually very informal. Students often work together in groups and go to the teacher only when they do (13) … … .

1 a) infant
2 a) secondary
3 a) writes a composition
4 a) behave well
5 a) pays for school
6 a) education
7 a) successful
8 a) class
9 a) obligatory
10 a) high
11 a) go
12 a) grammar tasks
13 a) abilities
b)_opportunities
b) nursery
b) primary
b) learns a poem
b) do well
b) behaves well
b) books
b) advanced
b) school
b) available
b) secondary
b) take
b) their homework
c) success
c) elementary
c) junior
c) takes a test
c) pay for school
c) does well
c) subjects
c) fundamental
c) extracurricular
c) equal
c) primary
c) make
c) need help

Work in pairs. Look at the diagrams below.
a) Compare the system of education in the USA and Britain.

b) Draw a diagram describing the system of education in Ukraine. Speak about it in class. Mention about:


Work in pairs. Take turns asking and answering the questions.

  1. How long have you been studying English?
  2. What was your last English course like?
  3. How did you get on with the other students?
  4. Have you tried learning any other languages? How did you find it?
  5. Who's the best language teacher you've ever had? Who's the worst?
Read the article and choose the sentence (A-D) that best fits each gap (1-4).

  1. In particular, you should try to talk to other students from your own country who have been to a language school to find out what you should expect.
  2. So most things are published in English, and if you want to keep up with the latest ideas in any subject, you need English.
  3. This is a good opportunity to improve your English and to learn a lot about everyday life.
  4. There are courses in General English, Technical English, Business English and so on.

English is the language of international communication in many areas of life: trade, air and sea transport, tourism, sport and entertainment. More and more people also need English for studying at universities and colleges. New ideas in science, technology and medicine happen so quickly that it is impossible and very expensive to translate everything into different languages. (1) ...

Millions of people around the world want to learn English. Many of them come to Britain and other English-speaking countries to study at language schools, especially in the summer. There are thousands of different schools. They offer courses for children, teenagers and adults. (2) ...

You should always try to find out as much information as possible before you choose a school. (3)..

If you go to a language school, you should try to speak English as much as possible. Students usually stay with a local family. (4) ...

You should also try to mix with students from other countries. This will help you with your English, and will also show you how important English is for international communication.

 

Work in groups. Discuss the following.

  • Why is English important?
  • What are some pieces of advice given to choose a good course?
  • What way can you reach better results while learning English in Britain?
Work in pairs. Choose one of the courses from the ads below Explain your choice m class. Use the 1st Conditional whenever it is possible.

If they offer..., I'll attend...If they provide... I'll choose...
I'll prefer... if they organise...|'|| apply to... if they arrange.


WRITING

Put the structure of a formal letter in the correct order.

A  stating reason(s) for writing 

B  writer's full name 

C  writingclosing remarks 

D  formal greeting 

E  qualifications and reason 
 for applying for a course  

1      Greeting

2      Introductory paragraphs

3      Body

4      Concluding paragraph

5      Ending

Put the structure of a formal letter in the correct order.

You received a Master's degree in Art History from the University of Cambridge. You are very ambitious and eager to continue your studies. The MA Classical Archaeology Courses offered by the University of Durham seem to be an outstanding opportunity for you.


Put the parts of the 'Application for the Course' in the correct order.


Choose one of the advertisements below. Write your letter of application. Use the letter on page 50 as a model and some of the phrases in the list on the right.


VOCABULARY

Match the words with their definitions.

1 compulsory a able to be used
2 comprehensive b a kind of education in which pupils of different
3 available
abilities go to the same school
4 to learn c to go regularly to a certain place
5 to study d must be done because it is the law
6 to attend e to get the theory of the subject
  f to get some practical skills

GRAMMAR

Complete the sentences by changing the form of the verb in brackets.

  1. I ... (help) tomorrow if you still ... (need) help.
  2. If my parents ... (not work) on Saturday, we all... (go) skiing.
  3. If the weather... (be) fine next weekend, we ... (go) to the country.
  4. I always ... (help) you this year if you ... (need) help.
  5. Granny sometimes ... (not hear) if little Eddie ... (call) her.

LISTENING

Listen to the conversation. Put 'T if the statement is true, and 'F' if it is false.

     1 Mike thinks that the exams were very easy.

     2 Pete agrees that exams were easy.

     3 Pete thinks he failed in some exams.

     4 Pete is going to read books now.

     5 Mike is going to enter the university in October.

     6 Pete has got to pass A level exams.

     7 Pete is very successful in his study.

     8 Mike likes reading too much.

     9 Pete doesn't know whether to go to university or join the army.

READING

Read the interview about Hampton School and refer the answers (A-F), given by the school headmaster, to the questions (1-6).

  1. When does school open and close?
  2. How are the boys organised?
  3. What about the curriculum, GCSEs and A levels?
  4. What languages do you teach?
  5. Do you have to play a particular sport?
  6. How easy is it to get in?

A A very broad curriculum is characteristic of the first three years. At GCSE boys study seven subjects and three options from thirteen and at A Level from five to six subjects from a range of thirty.

B At 6 am and 10 pm usually. However, we like boys to arrive from 8 am and after school, they can work in the library till 5 pm.

C The modern languages are French, German, Spanish and Russian. And one of the first three can be chosen as the first language studies with the opportunity to start a second language in the Third Form.

D It is difficult to say. It depends on whether Hampton is right for the boy as much as whether the boy is right for Hampton. Each year there are large numbers of applicants who take the entrance exam.

E They are in forms of about 25, usually less, some a little more. Each Form has a Form Tutor[1].

F All boys can choose the sport they wish to play. In the First Year, they can pick football or rugby. In the Third Year, they can also row. The summer games are cricket, tennis and athletics. Swimming and badminton are available, too.


1 a tutor ['tju:tǝ] — учитель, наставник, консультант

 


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