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Unit 4



READING

 

a) Work in pairs. List as many food items as you can for three minutes.

b) Compare your lists with other pairs. Find the winner with the longest list.

Look and name the dishes. Speak on how often you have them in your house.

Traditional British Meals

In the morning an Englishman has his favourite breakfast of cornflakes with milk and sugar or porridge followed by fried bacon and eggs. Breakfast is generally a bigger meal than they have on the Continent. Some marmalade might be spread on the toast and butter. Perhaps some fruit will also be eaten. For a change one can have cold ham. or perhaps fish, some coffee and a roll.

The main meal of the day is called dinner. Dinner is eaten either in the middle of the day or in the evening. If it is eaten in the evening (about 7 pm), the midday meal is called lunch (about 1 pm). If dinner is in the middle of the day, the evening meal is called supper.

The usual midday meal consists of two courses — a meat course accompanied by plenty of vegetables. After it comes a sweet pudding or some stewed fruit. Most Englishmen like what they call good plain food. Usually they have beefsteaks, chops, roast beef and fried fish and chips. They are not overfond of soup, remarking that it leaves them without free room for the more important meat course.


Read the job advertisements quickly. Which advertisement (A-E) mentions:

  • all the meal times in Britain
  • the ingredients of Christmas Pudding

Afternoon tea one can hardly call a meal. This may mean a cup of tea and a cake taken in the sitting-room or at work. For many Englishmen it is a social occasion when people often come in for a chat over their cup of tea. But some people like to have the so-called 'high tea' which is quite a substantial meal. They have it between five and six o'clock. In a well-to-do family[1] it will consist of ham, tongue and tomatoes and salad, or kipper, or tinned salmon, or sausage, with strong tea, bread and butter, then stewed fruit, or a tin of pears, apricot or pineapple with cream and custard, and pasties, or a bun. The evening meal goes under various names: tea, 'high tea', dinner or supper (as we have mentioned already) depending upon its size and the social position of those eating it.

It is well-known that every national cuisine has got its famous specialties. It isn't possible to imagine some holidays and celebrations without them. For example, Christmas Pudding for British cuisine means very much. Some English people could dispense[2] with the turkey and goose, but a Christmas dinner in Britain without a traditional Christmas pudding would be strange indeed!

WORD
FILE
a cuisine [kwi'zi:n]
a course [ko:s]
an occasion [a'kei3n]
a specialty ['spejalti]
to consist (of) [kan'sist]
to include [in'klu:d]
to stew [stju:]

The Christmas pudding is a direct descendant[3] of the old time plum porridge, beloved by English people in the Middle Ages.

Nowadays, in addition to the basic mixture of flour, bread-crumbs and eggs, the ingredients of Christmas pudding include raisins, currants, candied peel, chopped almonds and walnuts, grated carrot and a good measure of brandy, whisky or old ale[4].

In many households the mixing of the pudding is quite a ceremony with all the members of the family taking turns to stir and make a whisk.

After being boiled for several hours, the pudding is stored until the time comes for heating it on Christmas Day when it is brought to the table on a large dish, big, round and dark-brown. The Christmas pudding is covered with white sauce burning in brandy.

Receiving each slice, the guests are warned to eat carefully because sixpenny bits, shillings, a tiny silver bell and a silver horseshoe[5] have been put in it. Those who find the 'treasure' are supposed to have money in the coming year, whoever gets the bell is to be married and the horse-shoe is the traditional sign of good luck.


1 well-to-do family — заможна сім'я
2 to dispense with [dı'spens] — обходитися (без чогось)
3 a descendant [dı'sendǝnt] — нащадок
4 ale [eıl] — пиво, ель
5 a horseshoe ['hɔ:sʃu:] — підкова
6 a liquid ['lıkwıd] — рідина

Read the article again. Copy and complete the table.

Mealtime Meal the British usually eat
1 breakfast  
2 main meal of the day  
3 afternoon tea  
4 high tea  

Match the words from the Word File to their definitions.

Example: An occasion is important social event or ceremony.

... is used to say what something is made of.

... means to cook something slowly in liquid[6].

... is a particular style of cooking.

... is a kind of food that is always very good in a particular area (or restaurant).

... means to make somebody or something part of a large group.

... is one of the separate parts of a meal.

Work in pairs. Take turns asking and answering the questions.

  1. What food was beloved by English people in the Middle Ages?
  2. What is the method to cook Christmas pudding nowadays?
  3. What little 'surprises' can we find in a slice of Christmas pudding?
  4. What does' a good plain food' mean?
  5. What social occasion is connected with afternoon tea?
  6. What does 'high tea' consist of?
Read and guess what a Ukrainian specialty each paragraph mentions about.

  1. It is a brawn made from boiling pigs' trotters[7]. The meat is picked off the bone and the gravy sets around it into a jelly as it cools; served with horseradish or mustard.
  2. Pancakes, often made with soured milk for a lighter batter. Thinner pancakes are called nalysnyky, which are rolled and served with a stuffing, usually fruit or jam.
  3. Cabbage rolls stuffed with rice and vegetables, or possibly with spiced minced meat, and stewed slowly in the oven.
  4. Soup based on beetroot with meat and other vegetables; served with sour cream. There are many regional varieties.
  5. Pork fat no description of Ukrainian cuisine would be complete without it. Ukrainians like their pigs to be fat for it. Spices are rubbed into the skin. It's eaten in thin slices on black bread with garlic and salt. Especially delicious is the smoked version.
  6. Ravioli-like pasta stuffed with potato, cabbage, mushrooms, meat or cheese, or with cherries as a sweet dish.
  7. A domestic sausage, but it can't be called saliami. The only way to sample true home-prepared sausage is by experiencing it for yourself with the sights and smells of the markets of Ukraine.
  8. Pancakes made from grated potato and flour and fried; served with sour cream.

7 trotters ['trɒtǝz] — ніжки (кулінар.)

Work in groups. Discuss the following.

  1. What is the difference between meals and meal-times in England and Ukraine?
  2. Do national Ukrainian dishes differ from those of English?
VOCABULARY

Match the word combinations with the pictures (A-F).

 D  boiled rice

     grilled sausages

     roast chicken □ fried eggs

     baked potatoes steamed vegetables

Put two of the words in the box into the correct column.

beans, duck, lettuce, peaches, prawns, salmon, sausage, strawberries

meat fish/seafood fruit vegetables
       

Complete the sentences with the adjectives from the box.

fresh, frozen, home-made, low-fat, raw, spicy, sweet, takeaway

 
  1. Food which is kept very cold is ... .
  2. These eggs are ..., I bought them today.
  3. I like my mum's cooking. ... food is always the best.
  4. This tea's very .... You've put too much sugar in it!
  5. Indian food like curry is very ... .
  6. ... food is food you buy at a restaurant and take home to eat.
  7. Sushi is made with ... fish.
  8. People on a diet often try to eat ... food.
GRAMMAR


Complete the sentences by changing the form of the verb in brackets.

Example: He ... (buy) a better house if he had more money.
He would buy a better house if he had more money.

  1. She ... (get) a better job if she took time to look for one.
  2. If we had tickets, we ... (go) to that concert.
  3. I ... (forget) about it if I were you.
  4. If Dick and Jean were here, they ... (enjoy) the museums.
  5. If you ... in a hurry, we ... (get) there on time.
Put the verbs in brackets in the correct forms to complete the sentences.

Example: If you ... less, you would lose weight, (eat)
If you ate less, you would lose weight.

  1. We would put more English dishes on the menu if we ... an English chef in the restaurant, (have)
  2. If I ... you, I'd prefer pudding for dessert, (be)
  3. We could cook more dishes if we ... more various ingredients, (have)
  4. If I had plums and brandy, I ... a Christmas pudding, (make)
  5. If you ... more cream, I'd decorate the cake with it. (make)
Match to make sentences.

1 I'd see a dentist if
2 If it were less expensive, I'd
3 If you didn't need oxygen,
4 If Mary studied harder,
5 If we had a car,
... she would get better marks.
... buy a helicopter to get to work.
... we could get there more quickly.
... you could live underwater.
... I still had any teeth.
Rewrite correctly changing the words or phrases in bold.

  1. I will visit her if I had more time.
  2. If I was the Emperor of the world, I would ban work.
  3. They would try harder if you would gave them motivation.
  4. We could get there if we have a bicycle.
  5. You would be healthier if you stop smoking.
  6. I would visit you if I would have the time.
Compete the 2nd conditionals by changing the form of the verb in brackets.

  1. If you ... (be) in England, what dishes would you taste?
  2. Which food ... you ... (prefer) to eat if you were hungry?
  3. Which English dish ... you ... (help to) if you were in England?
  4. Which items would you choose if you ... (be proposed) an English breakfast?
  5. When would you have substantial meal if you ... (be) in England?
Change the following sentences of real condition into sentences of unreal condition.

Example: I shall take a bus if I am in a hurry.
I shall take a bus if I am in a hurry.

  1. If the storm is over, we shall have a pleasant walk.
  2. If it grows cold, they start heating the rooms.
  3. He will let me know if he goes to Kyiv.
  4. Harold will be late if he walks so slowly.
  5. The dog will catch the stick if it is thrown into the river.
  6. If it snows, the streets will be cleared of snow.
  7. If the weather keeps dry, we have to water the flowers.
  8. We shall not see anything if the night is very dark.
  9. The child will not be able to sleep if he has a high temperature.
LISTENING

Do the questionnaire in pairs.

Food Questionnaire

Can you name:

  • one red fruit, one yellow fruit and one green fruit?
  • three kinds of food which are made from milk?
  • two things that a strict vegetarian doesn't eat?
  • four things people have for breakfast?
  • five things people eat between meals?
  • six vegetables you can put in a salad?
  • seven things which are usually on a table in a restaurant?
Talk with your partner on the following.

  • Can you cook? What do you know how to make?
  • Who cooks in your house?
  • What is your favourite dish? Do you know how is it cooked?
a) Get some information.

Lent

Lent is the period of forty days before Easter. For Christians it's a time to give up something, for example, to stop eating sweets. Then at Easter, children in Britain eat lots of sweet things — especially chocolate Easter eggs! Lent begins on Wednesday, and many people eat something special on the day before 'Shrove Tuesday'. In Britain they eat pancakes.

b) Listen to the radio programme and say what ingredients a pancake consists of.

Listen again and give instructions about cooking pancakes to a partner. Take turns.




a) Divide into three groups. Working in a group, choose one of the three different recipes below.


b) Read your recepe. Then act out how you'd cook the dish in your group.

c) Divide into new groups of three pupils with different recipes. Tell each other how to cook the dish you read about. Use the lists of ingredients to help you.

SPEAKING

USEFUL
PHRASES

Explain Your Choice
The reasons I prefer... are...
I'd say ... is better because...
One of the reasons why I'd choose ... is that...
I think ... is interesting because...
What I mean is...

Speak about food you like and dislike. Give your reasons.

Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions.

  1. What can you say about Ukrainian hospitality?
  2. What are your mealtimes? What order of meals do you follow?
  3. What is the difference between meals and mealtimes in England and Ukraine?
  4. What is English 'afternoon tea'?
  5. What is your favourite dish?
  6. How would you lay the table for the guests? What about the menu?
  7. What do you generally take for the first (second) course?
  8. Do the national Ukrainian dishes differ from the English ones?
Do the project. Follow the instructions.

  1. Imagine that you are the owner of a very good restaurant. Give your restaurant a name. Write a menu. Offer at least three items each for starters, main courses, side dishes, salads and desserts.
  2. Display your work in a gallery of works.
  1. Ask your mates to decide which restaurant they would like to go to, and why.
  2. Decide what is the best restaurant for you from those that your mates displayed. Give your reasons.
Prepare a recipe for any Ukrainian dish.
Make notes and present it in class.

In groups of three discuss the following.
  • What do you think of English food?
  • Do you think an English restaurant would be a success if it opened in your town? Why (not)?
USE YOUR ENGLISH

Complete each sentence with a word in the box.

home-made, raw, spicy, diet, steak, takeaway, frozen

  1. His ... is terrible: he eats too many sweet things.
  2. ... vegetables have more vitamins than when they are cooked.
  3. I love ... food but I don't have much time to cook.
  4. She likes her... well done.
  5. I'm very busy so I often just buy a ... meal and heat it up in the microwave.
  6. She doesn't like Mexican food because it is too ... .
  7. We often buy ... food on Fridays either Chinese or Indian food.
Complete the sentences by changing the form of the verbs in brackets to make 2nd Conditionals.

  1. If I ... (have) lettuce, celery, cucumbers and parsley I ... (make) a tasty green salad.
  2. We ... (can serve) a wonderful cake if he ... (not spoil) it.
  3. She ... (stay hungry) if she ... (be) in Mexico because she hates spicy food.
  4. If dinner... (be) ready we ... (sit) around the table at once.
  5. If I ... (have) an English Cookery Book I ... (prepare) some delicious specialties of English cuisine.
Work in pairs. Take turns asking and answering the questions.

  • Have you ever tried English tea?
  • Have you ever tried Chinese food?
  • What do you know about traditional British food?
  • What do you get if you order traditional English breakfast?
  • Do you know what people in America usually eat for Thanksgiving?
Make a list of food or dishes you associate with the countries below. Compare it with a partner.

The USA, China, France, Italy, Japan, Mexico

a) Read the information and discuss it.

— one English proverb says. There is a wide range of nutritious foods in the world. However, eating habits differ from country to country. In some societies certain foods are taboo. An eccentric millionaire once invited guests from several countries to a banquet and offered them this menu. All the foods are popular in some parts of the world, but are not eaten in others.

b) Look at the menu and answer the questions below.

  • If you had been there, which items could you have eaten?
  • Which items would you have eaten? Which items couldn't you have eaten? Why not?
  • Do you know which countries they are popular in? Would you eat them, if you were starving?
  • What unusual things are eaten in our country? Has Ukraine got a national dish? How do you make it?
a) Read the statements below. Agree or disagree.

b) Work in groups. Express your opinions.

If you ask foreigners to name some typically English dishes, they will probably say 'Fish and chips', then stop. It is disappointing, but true that, there is no tradition in England of eating in restaurants, because the food doesn't lend itself to such preparation. English cooking is found at home. So it is difficult to find a good English restaurant with reasonable prices.

In most cities in Britain you'll find Indian, Chinese, French and Italian restaurants, in London you'll also find Indonesian, Mexican, Greek... Some will say that this is because English have no 'cuisine' themselves, but this is not quite the true.

Do the project following the instructions.

USEFUL
PHRASES

Agreeing I Disagreeing
I quite agree that...
I don't think
Well, to be honest, I think...
I agree completely...
I can't agree with...
The problem is that...
I don't share that view, because...

Giving a balanced view
We could say..., but also...
On the one hand,.... On the other...
It may be true... . However, ...
It's true that..., but...
At the same time,...

Speak about food you like and dislike. Give your reasons.

Work in pairs. Ask and answer the questions.

  1. Decide what kind of booklet you are going to compile:
  • an A to Z of British national cuisine
  • an A to Z of European cuisine
  • an A to Z of Ukrainian cuisine
  1. Draw a table like in the example below. The table should contain all the ABC letters!
  2. Find out about the natural cuisine you are writing about.
  3. Find or draw the pictures to illustrate your food and drinks.
  4. Discuss the design of your booklet.
  5. Produce your 'A to Z'.
  6. Present your booklet in class.
ABC letters Food or a drink Pictures Country / Countries Description of dishes or gastronomy items
A ale Britain It is an old-fashioned drink.
B bacon and eggs Britain It is a popular main dish of a traditional English breakfast. It includes fried slices of bacon and eggs.
C Christmas pudding Britain It is a plum pudding which contains dried fruit, spices and often brandy. It is served as a part of Christmas dinner.

WRITING

Work in pairs. Get some information and discuss it.

A paragraph is a basic unit of organisation in writing. A paragraph develops a topic. A paragraph can stand by itself or it may be a part of a longer piece of writing such as an essay. A paragraph has a very specific structure. It consists of the 3 basic parts:

1 THE TOPIC SENTENCE
2 THE BODY (supporting sentences)
3 THE CONCULDING SENTENCE

The topic sentence introduces the topic (subject) of a paragraph. It may content the writers attitude, idea or opinion. In any case it should have a clear point of view.

The body of a paragraph develops the topic sentence. These sentences explain the topic by giving examples, reasons, quotations, facts, figures, statistics or the author's personal experience.

The concluding sentence indicates the end of a paragraph. It can paraphrase the topic sentence in different words or summarise the main points of the paragraph. It is very helpful to the readers. In addition to the 3 basic structural parts, a well-written paragraph must also have: unity, completeness, coherence[1] and logical ordering. There are three main types of paragraphs: narrative[2], descriptive and expository[3].


1 coherence [kǝʊ'hıǝrǝns] — послідовність
2 narrative ['nærǝtiv] — розповідний
3 expository [eks'pɒzıtǝri] — пояснювальний

Which of the following sentences would you consider to be a good/bad topic sentence. Why?

  1. Our school trip last September was a complete trouble.
  2. Only twenty tickets were sold for tonight's concerts.
  3. Secondary education in Ukraine.
  4. The legal age for driving a car should be 21 for several reasons.
  5. A good teacher has 3 important characteristics.
In pairs make complete topic sentences.


Read and identify the type of each paragraph.

Read the list of topic sentences and choose one to write a paragraph in 80-100 words. Use the appropriate type of paragraph and the corresponding type of ordering.

  1. Breakfast with the President started as a perfect day.
  2. A substantial breakfast is an essential foundation for a successful day for the Ukrainians.
  3. In recent years a number of restaurants, bars and cafés have opened in Ukraine, offering excellent food with high standards of service.

VOCABULARY

Complete the text with the words or word combinations in the box.

biscuits (x2), roast turkey, 'good plain food', tea, fish arid chips, Christmas pudding, substantial, main course, fruit pie, soup, roast beef, beef steak, have a chat, occasion

The English like what they call .... They must be able to recognise what they are eating. Usually they like ..., roast beef, Yorkshire pudding and ....

Afternoon tea is taken at about 5 o'clock, but it can hardly be called a meal. It is a cup of tea and cake or ... .At the weekends afternoon tea is a special .... Friends and visitors are often invited to ... over a cup of tea.

Dinner is the most ... meal of the day. It is usually eaten at 7 o'clock. The first course may be ... (though the English don't like it very much). The ... will often be fish or meat, perhaps the traditional ... of old England, and a lot of vegetables. The next course will be something sweet and often cooked, such as a ... . Last of all there may be cheese, often with ....

It is common knowledge that the English are very fond of... . They like to have 'a nice cup of tea' 6 or 8 times a day, sometimes even more.

On Christmas Day a ... is traditionally cooked for dinner. It is usually followed by ... . Long before Christmas housewives begin to plan what cake to make for Christmas. Usually they make fantastic Christmas cakes.

GRAMMAR

Complete the sentences by changing the verbs in brackets to make 2nd Conditionals.

  • If I ... (be) in Bukovyna, I ... (help) myself to brynza.
  • If I ... (have) some dried fruit, I ... (make) uzvar or kysil.
  • I ... (can make) kvas if I ... (have) some dried bread.
  • If you ... (be) in Poltava, you ... (be invited) to taste Ukrainian borshch with halushky.
  • If you ... (ask) me what dessert I'd like to have, I ... (mention) about apple pie first.
Read the recipe and put the steps below in the correct order.

     Prepare thickener.
     Taste, add salt.
     Add the rest of the cabbage, potatoes, tomatoes, onion and dill and let them cook.
     Serve.
     Add thickener to borshch.
     Add cream and garlic, and cook.
     Cook the beetroot, carrots and green beans in 2 I of water.

LISTENING

Read the recipe and put the steps below in the correct order.

     1 George opened up a restaurant in Canada.
     2 They mainly serve international dishes.
     3 George thinks everybody knows the English to be excellent cooks.
     4 The chef of the restaurant is Argentinian.
     5 They have traditional English breakfasts and typical English desserts on the menu.
     6 English dishes are not much popular in Argentina.
     7 George misses a wonderful French cheese — Roquefort.
     8 Stilton is English blue cheese.


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