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Unit 6



READING

 

Look at the photos and decide what is happening on each one. Refer the words to the photos. Use your dictionary.

     drought     flood     tornado
     typhoon     tsunami     famine
     volcano eruption     earthquake     forest fire


Read the article quickly and say what natural disasters from the photos above are mentioned in the article.

«Local road was washed away and damaged. The highway of national route 'Kyiv-Chop' was blocked because of mud sliding in the Skole district in the Lviv region. Railroad Lviv – Uzhhorod was blocked because of fall of the tree.»

«A private dwelling house was destroyed because of sliding in the Ivano-Frankivsk region. The master of the house, born in 1965, died. 963 houses were underflooded by flood water.»

«On July, 24 in the evening 27-year-old resident of the Vyzhnytsya district died in the basement that was flooded as a result of bad weather in Bukovyna.»

These lines are from Ukrayinski Novyny report about the natural disaster that occurred in Western Ukraine in July 2008. As a result of heavy showers the level of water had been raised in the rivers, and dwelling houses, farmlands and agricultural holdings were underflooded. Some crops were destroyed.

Natural disasters have begun to occur in Ukraine with increasing frequency. After dangerous floods in Zakarpattya storms and tornados have also come their way. Information about the number of people killed by lightning is more frequent in different parts of Ukraine. Until recently, we only heard of such disasters occurring on the other side of the Atlantic.

And what are the causes of natural disasters which are becoming more frequent in our country? Not waiting for the scientists' explanations, people say this is our fault. During the last 50 years a great deal of forests in the Carpathians have been cut down. Deforestation[1] has led to changes in local climate. That's why we have so much trouble with floods in this region. The scientists remind us that all elements and systems are interconnected in nature. Irresponsible attitude to it might lead to terrible results.

The conducted research work has confirmed the idea about not only natural but man-made causes of these floods.

What is a natural disaster? The definition is: it is the effect of a natural hazard that affects the environment and leads to financial, environmental and/or human losses. A natural hazard is a threat of a natural occurring event that will have a negative effect on people or the environment. Many natural hazards are interrelated. For example, earthquake can cause tsunami and drought that can lead directly to famine.

The costs of natural disasters — lives lost, homes destroyed, economies disrupted[2]... But there is reason for hope. By understanding how and where these natural events occur, we can build and live safely on the Earth, and by providing real-time information about floods, earthquakes, and other hazards, we can respond effectively when disaster strikes. We should build stronger, safer communities that are resistant to natural disasters.

WORD
FILE
a disaster [dı'zɑ:stǝ]
a frequency ['frikwǝnsi]
a hazard ['hæzǝd]
a threat [Ɵret]
to damage ['dæmıʤ]
to occur [ǝ'kɜ:]
to respond [rı'spɒnd]
to underflood [.ʌndǝ'flʌd]
frequent ['fri:kwǝnt]
resistant [rı'zıstǝnt]

1 deforestation [,di:,fɒrı'steıʃn] — вирубування лісів
2 disrupted [dıs'rʌptıd] — зруйнований

Read the article again and choose the best answer (a-c).

1 What natural disaster did occur in Western Ukraine in 2008?

a) drought
b) earthquake
c) flood

2 What happened to the national route 'Kyiv-Chop' in 2008?

a) It was underflooded.
b) It was blocked with mud sliding.
c) It was ruined by volcano eruption.

3 What natural disasters are becoming more frequent in Ukraine?

a) floods and storms
b) floods and earthquakes
c) tsunamis and floods

4 What are the causes of frequent floods in Zakarpattya?

a) heavy showers
b) natural and man-made causes
c) deforestation

5 What is a natural disaster?

a) It is a natural hazard.
b) It is a weather event.
c) It is the effect of a natural hazard.

6 What is a natural hazard?

a) It is a threat of a natural event that might have negative effect.
b) It is a natural catastrophe.
c) It is a natural disaster.

7 What is the relationship between natural hazards?

a) They all result into natural disasters.
b) They are interrelated, one can lead to another.
c) They never influence each other.

8 What does 'to respond to natural disasters effectively' mean?

a) It means we shouldn't pay any attention to difficulties.
b) It means that we must remember that all elements and systems are interconnected in nature.
c) It means we should learn more about disasters and build safer communities with real-time information provided.

Read the paragraphs (A-E) and refer them to the questions (1-5). Act out the interview in pairs.

     1 What are they?
     2 Why do they happen?
     3 Where do they happen?
     4 How do they affect people?
     5 What can people do?

  1. Over the warm parts of oceans. Tornadoes are common in parts of the USA, Australia and Japan.
  2. The water evaporates[3] from the warm sea. This condenses in the atmosphere. More and more hot, wet air rises up. It becomes a strong wind.
  3. Scientists can usually track[4] hurricanes, but they cannot stop them.
  4. Tropical storms with strong winds. They start at sea, and can travel a long distance. They have different names in different places: 'hurricanes' in the Atlantic Ocean, 'typhoons' in the Pacific Ocean, 'tropical cyclones' in the Indian Ocean and around Australasia. Tornadoes or whirlwinds, are similar, but begin over land.
  5. They can affect ships, blow down houses, cause floods and disrupt traffic.
 
a) Match natural hazards in the box with their descriptions below.

an avalanche, an earthquake, floods, a tsunami, a heat wave, a tornado hailstorms

  1. ... is one of the names of cyclonic storm that forms over the oceans. It is caused by evaporated water that comes from the ocean. Typhoon is another name for it.
  2. ... are rain drops that have formed together into ice.
  3. ... are the result of prolonged rainfall from a storm, rapid melting of large amounts of snow, or rivers which rise up their levels of water.
  1. ... is a phenomenon that results from a sudden release of stored energy that radiates seismic waves. It shows itself by a shaking of the ground.
  2. ... is a slide of a large snow (or rock) mass down a mountainside. It is one of the major dangers faced in the mountains in winter.
  3. ... is a wave of water caused by the displacement[5] of a body of water. It can be caused by undersea earthquakes or by meteorological phenomena.
  4. ... is a hazard characterised by heat which is considered extreme and unusual in the area in which it occurs.

3 to evaporate [l'vaepsreit] — випаровувати(ся)
4 to track [traek] — стежити; простежувати
5 a displacement [dis'pleismant] — переміщення

a landslide, a volcanic eruption, a hurricane, a wildfire, a blizzard, a drought
  1. ... is a disaster closely related to an avalanche, but instead of occurring with snow, it occurs involving actual elements of the ground, including rocks, trees, parts of houses etc. which may happen to be swept up. It can be caused by an earthquake or a volcanic eruption.
  2. ... is a severe winter storm condition characterised by low temperatures, strong winds, and heavy blowing snow.
  3. ... is a natural disaster resulting from a thunderstorm1. It is a violent, rotating column of air, which can blow at speeds between 50 and 48 km/h and possibly higher. It can occur one at a time or can occur along lines occupying large areas.
  4. ... is the point in which a volcano is active and releases its power, and the eruptions come in many forms.
  5. ... is defined as an acute shortage of water and crop failure. It is an abnormally dry period when there is not enough water to support water needs.
  6. ... is an uncontrolled fire burning in wildland areas. Common causes include lightning and drought but they may also be started by human carelessness.
b) Work in pairs. Share and check the results of your work. Use a dictionary.

Work in groups. Read and discuss the following.

Scientists understand a lot about environment but they don't understand everything. Every year there are big and small disasters in different parts of the world. Some of these happen very often, but some of them are a big shock. How do these natural disasters affect humans? Can we do anything about them?


6 a thunderstorm ['Ɵʌndǝstɔ:m] — rpoзa

VOCABULARY
VOCABULARY
POINT
A cause or reason?

A cause is that which produces and effect, which makes a thing happen.

A reason is a fact which is put forward as a motive or explanation, or in order to justify some conclusion.

Complete the sentences with 'cause' or reason'.

  1. Carelessness is often the ... of fires.
  2. The ... of the accident is still not known.
  3. What is the ... of lightning?
  4. Scientists attribute changes in the weather to natural ....
  5. The ... of earthquakes is the heat inside the earth.
  6. Never stay away from school without good ....
  7. There is no ... to suppose he will forget.
  8. What was the ... for your refusal to go there?
Group up the words in the box according to the columns below.

tsunamis, droughts, blizzards, avalanches, tornadoes, hurricanes, floods, earthquakes, hailstorms, whirlpools, heat waves, landslides, fires, ice storms, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes
Land movement disasters Water disasters Weather disasters
     

Complete the text with the words in the box.

eruption, inform, volcanic, damage, volcano (x3), cause

The airport at Quito was closed yesterday because of the damage that... ash could ... to flights. The ash thrown up by the ... Guagua Pichincha could also cause serious ... to agriculture. It might make breathing difficult for people and animals. At one moment, it looked as if the ... might erupt slowly. This slow ... could last for months or even years.

The mayor of Quito said: «We must learn to live next
to this .... What else can we do? There is a 10 per
cent chance that it will be a long calm eruption.
People should wear special masks when
they go outside. We will continue to
keep an eye on the situation, and
we will ... the public of any other
measures they should take.


GRAMMAR
Read and complete the list with your ideas. Use the phrases in the box.

If we used bicycles, we would have less air pollution.

If we planted new trees, rainforests wouldn't disappear.

If we ...

drive electric cars, use less paper, create special parks for animals, teach hunters it's wrong to kill animals, not to cut out forests
Match the suggestions with the possible results. Then make conditional sentences as in the example.

Suggestions
put bins on every streets corner
have more trees/green areas
improve public transport
people use bicycles
people recycle things
create more parks
 
Results
people have more oxygen
not be so much rubbish everywhere
people not drop litter in streets
people not buy so many cars
children be able to play safely
cities be less polluted

Example: If the authorities put rubbish bins on every street corner, people wouldn't drop litter in the streets.

a) Use the phrases in the box and write questions by changing the form of the verbs in brackets.

What would you do if you...?
(have) an exam the next day
(be) offered a job in Australia
(wake up) and (see) a snake in your bedroom
(meet) your friend of childhood
(get) too much change from a shop assistant
(see) somebody stealing something in a shop
(borrow) a friend's car and broke one of the lights

— What would you do if you didn't have a dime?

What would you do if you didn't have a dollar?

— If I didn't have a dime I'd cry all the time. If I didn't have a dollar

I would HOLLER[6]!

b) Work in pairs. Take turns asking and answering the questions as in the rhyme above.

Get ready to explain the statement in class. Use Conditionals.


6 to holler ['hɒtǝ] — кричати, лементувати

LISTENING

Decide which disaster is the worst:

avalanche, flood, drought, fire, earthquake...

Make a Top Five List (number one will be the worst disaster). Compare your list with a partner and discuss the results in pairs.

Listen and name three natural disasters in the order the speaker mentioned them.


Listen again and complete the sentences.

  1. The water in the rivers rose higher and higher and there was the danger of...
  2. Hurricanes are very strong winds that come from...
  3. Hurricane Andrew killed 15 people in Florida and...
  4. It was in the west of Africa. The winds changed directions and the sea...
  5. People and animals died because...
Read and decide whether the statements below are true or false.

  1. If an earthquake occurs when you are in school, you should leave the building when the earthquake starts.
  2. If an earthquake occurs when you are at home, you should stand near a big table.
  3. The best way to leave the building during an earthquake is to get into a lift.
  4. A good thing to do if you are outside during an earthquake is to stand in an open area.
Listen again and complete the sentences.


b) Listen again and give your partner advice about what he/she should do when there is an earthquake and he/she is:

• in school• at home• in the street

SPEAKING

Talk with your partner on the following items.

  1. Have you ever heard or read of any natural disaster? Talk about it.
  2. Have you ever experienced a disaster? When? What happened?
  3. Can you name some disasters?
  4. What do you think of people who throw away cigarette butts and cause fires during the summer? What can we do to prevent this?
  5. What natural disasters can occur in Ukraine? When and where was the last one?
Work in pairs. Do the tasks below.

• Don't use the lifts.• Make sure all the windows are closed.

• Keep calm.• Follow your teacher's instructions.

• Call the fire brigade.• Make sure all doors are shut.

• Don't panic.• Keep the fire doors closed.

Read what some guests of TV show tell about their experiences during disasters. Act out their roles in pairs.


Role-play the situation in groups of four.

One of you is a TV host, the others are three guests who survived after some terrible disasters. Talk about your experiences.


7 to survive [sǝ'vaıv] — вижити, залишитися живим

USE YOUR ENGLISHD

Do the quiz and see the keys to find out how green you are.

KEYS

MOSTLY A's.
You're not very green, are you? Please look after our world before it's too late.
MOSTLY B's.
You're trying to be more green, but you don't always get it right. Learn more about the environment.
MOSTLY C's.
Well done. You're really green! We need more people like you to help us save our environment!

a) Read about some environmental problems and possible ways out of them.

  • water pollution
  • air pollution
  • land pollution
  • disruption
  • global warming
  • people shouldn't leave litter in the streets
  • plants shouldn't dump chemical wastes into rivers / atmosphere / on land
  • concentration of smoke in the air should be controlled
  • we should stop killing animals
  • the number of cars should be reduced
b) Match problems with their solutions and write as in the example. Use 2nd Conditionals.

Example: If plants didn't dump chemical wastes into rivers there wouldn't be water pollution.

Read the sentences carefully. Then refer disasters (A-J) to their descriptions (1-10).

A Fire
B Typhoon
C Earthquake
D Tidalwave
F Volcano
E Drought
G Sandstorm
H Landslide
I Flood
J Famine
     1 Several people were walking along when suddenly tons of earth came crashing down the hillside and blocked the road in front of them.
     2 Over 50,000 people in Ethiopia have died of starvation in the past month. Questions are being asked concerning the delay in supplies of rice and grain which were recently sent to them.
     3 The winds have already strengthened considerably and the sea is now very rough indeed. As a result, ferries across the harbour have stopped sailing and all large ships have put out to sea.
     4 The river overflowed in several places and huge areas of farming land are now several feet under water. Boats are being to rescue[8] people in nearby villages.
     5 Suddenly the ground shook beneath out feet and the tall building opposite the college began to sway[9]. Windows and doors rattled and several bookcases in the college library came crashing down.
     6 Tankers full of water were sent, but it was too late to save many of the animals and crops there. The whole area was like a vast desert.
     7 Smoke poured out of the crater but no one exported an eruption. A week later, however, red hot lava began to flow down the side of the mountain.
     8 It swept onwards, covering everything in its path. The travellers had to get off their camels and lie down until it had eventually passed.
     9 Flames swept through the block of office, burning everything inside. Two hours later only the empty shell of the building remained.
     10 It must have been at least twenty feet high as it swept towards the shore. In a few seconds it destroyed all the houses in its way, drowning everyone inside.

8 to rescue ['reskju:] — рятувати
9 to sway [sweı] — хитатися


a) Read the pieces of newspaper information and refer them to the disasters.

b) Work in groups. Discuss the following questions.

  • What information is offered in these short newspaper notes?
  • How often do you read or hear the similar information?
  • What are possible consequences of different natural disasters?
  • What measures can be taken to avoid natural disasters?

10 1steam [sti:m] — пара
11 to soar [sɔ:] — підніматися; високо літати
12 a slope [slǝʊp] — схил
13 to remain alert [ǝ'lɜ:t] — залишатися насторожі
14 to escape [ı'skeıp] — утікати
15 to smash [smæʃ] — бити з усієї сиїїи; урізатися; руйнувати, знищувати

a) Role-play the situation in pairs.

Imagine you live in a place which has been affected by one of the disasters. A friend is going to call you to ask how you are. You're going to tell him/her what's happened. Before you start, think of 5 questions you expect them to ask you about the situation.

b) Change the roles and role-play another similar situation.

Work in pairs. Read the disasters in the box and discuss the questions below.

avalanche, flood, landslide, tsunami, earthquake, forest fire, tornado, volcano, drought, hurricane
  1. Have any of these natural disasters ever happened in Ukraine? When? How serious were they?
  2. Have you heard any news stories about them happening anywhere else in the world?
  3. Which of the disasters do you think are 'acts of God'? Which are sometimes the result of human actions?
  4. Have any of the countries near Ukraine suffered a national tragedy recently?
  5. Would you feel comfortable going on holiday somewhere that had been affected by a disaster? Why / why not?
Work in groups. Read what some scientists say and explain how you understand their words. Agree or disagree. Explain your opinions.

Earthquakes, landslides, floods — these hazards are part of the way the Earth operates. Although we can't prevent natural hazards from happening, we can learn from them and use this knowledge to prevent hazards from turning into natural disasters.

The century we have started recently gives us a new chance to apply the lessons we have learned about natural hazards. As we look ahead, we must continue to improve both our understanding of how the earth works and our ability to provide timely[16] and effective warning, so that we can live safely on our planet.

Write a paragraph about the most terrible weather you have ever experienced.


16 timely ['taımli] — вчасний

WRITING

WRITING
POINT
The stages of writing process are called:
1 Prewriting
2 Planning
3 Writing and rewriting drafts
4 Writing a final copy
These stages can be subdivided into the following steps:
Step 1: a topic
Step 2: generating ideas
Step 3: organising ideas
Step 4: writing the 1st draft
Step 5: rewriting
Step 6: writing the final draft
a) Get some useful information.

As a student you are often given the writing task. The most common mistake made is the fact that the chosen topic is too broad for a single paragraph or even an essay. You have to narrow it down to a specific aspect of the general topic.

b) Work in groups. Choose two of the topics from the box below and narrow them down to a specific aspect you could write about in a paragraph.

education, relationships, communication technologies, media, environment, food, travelling, young people, sports

Work in groups. Read and say if you have ever used the following methods. Share your experience in the group.

There are some methods which help to generate ideas.
BRAINSTORMING   Don't try think logically, just write a list of ideas as quickly as possible in words, phrases or sentences. It can be done individually or in groups. After the time analyse what you have listed and combine related ideas. This can be the basis for your paragraph or essay.
 
FREE WRITING   Choose the topic and write down whatever comes to your mind. Set a time limit. Don't allow yourself to stop. Then go back and look for some interesting and useful ideas. Cross out unnecessary ideas.
 
WH-QUESTIONS   Successful newspaper reporters always answer these questions (who, what, when, where, why, how). Write questions as many as you can, then answer them as fully as you can.
 
CLUSTERING   It means making a map of ideas. The purpose is to make ideas visual and make creatively new associations. Start with the topic, circled in the middle of a paper. Draw a line from the circle and write an idea you associate with the topic. Circle this new idea and draw some lines from it and write new associations. Continue until you have no more ideas. Now you have a good basis for writing.

a) Brainstorm individually for 5 minutes on one of the topics below.

  1. My Future Plans
  2. My Kind of Holiday
  3. Computer in Our Life

b) Find a classmate who has chosen the same topic. Compare and exchange your ideas and try to group them to form the basis for a paragraph or an essay.

a) Work in groups. Choose one of the following topics and brainstorm for 7 minutes in class.

  1. Education
  2. Nature
  3. Family

b) Arrange your ideas. Then compare them with other groups.

Choose the topic below and freewrite individually for 5 minutes. Compare and exchange your ideas with a classmate who has chosen the same topic.

  1. Natural Disasters
  2. Shopping
  3. Cooking
Work in groups. Choose one of the following topics and use clustering to map your ideas about it. Complete the task within 15 minutes.


Do the project following the instructions.

  1. You are a young reporter working for a daily newspaper. Develop a number of Wh-questions about the terrible earthquake that struck Mexico City.
  2. After completing the list of questions, answer them.
  3. Write a short paragraph for your newspaper and present it in class.

GRAMMAR

Complete the sentences by changing the form of the verb in brackets.

  1. If I ... (be) taller, I would play in a basketball team.
  2. If they were more careful, that Monday accident... (happen).
  3. If I were you, I ... (do) this work yesterday.
  4. If I ... (meet) him, you will be the first to know.
  5. If our guests ... (stay) a bit longer, they will be able to meet our parents.
  6. If you were not in a hurry, they ... (explain) everything to you.
  7. They ... (not: invite) you to join the English club, if they had known you do not speak English.
  8. If you ... (see) them tomorrow, please, let them know I am coming this weekend.

VOCABULARY

Complete the text with the words in the box.

reduce, causes, occur, fires, natural, destroy, accident, guard

FOREST FIRES

This summer there will probably be a lot of forest... as always during the hot weather. These fires will not only ... thousands of trees but could destroy homes as well. What are the ... of forest fires?

Some fires will simply be the result of... causes, particularly in hot, dry weather. But this can't explain why fires ... at other times, when the weather is not so hot. For example, when a fire starts in several different places at the same time, it can't be an ...; it must be because someone started it.

We can ... the number of fires by employing more people to ... the forests, but this can't be something the government can't afford.


LISTENING

Listen and complete the sentences.

  1. Our planet suffer from...
  2. Sometimes the Earth warns of...
  3. We must be careful not to provoke...
  1. Such natural disasters as... or... make big problems.
  2. Different countries send ... as well as ...
  3. Natural disasters teach us...

READING

Read and refer the paragraphs (A-E) with the questions (1-5) below.

     1 What are they?
     2 Why do they happen?
     3 Where do they happen?
     4 How do they affect people?
     5 What can people do?
  1. When the floods are a surprise, many people can drown. Every year people lose their houses and their furniture. When floods happen every year, some people are ready for them. But many people (and governments) do not prepare properly.
  2. If there is a lot of rain, or very strong winds, floods can happen.
  3. Dams can reduce floods but some dams can cause them! There are often 'flood warnings' on the radio.
  4. The water in rivers, lakes or the ocean rises above its normal level and goes onto the land.
  5. Some rivers in Bangladesh and India flood every year. People expect it, so there is no panic. When the floods go down, there are lots of minerals on the soil. They can grow good plants.
 


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