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Unit 7



READING

 

Talk with your partner on the following items.

  1. What is the difference between a drawing and a painting?
  2. What are the subjects of your favourite pictures?
  3. What is your favourite painting?
  4. Who is your favourite painter?
Talk with your partner on the following items.

Name some of the Ukrainian painters.

a) Read the article and pay attention to the words in bold. Consult a dictionary if necessary.

ARTISTIC TRADITIONS IN UKRAINE

  1. As for as the development of art of painting in Ukraine is concerned, one should remember that the early period referred to icon-painting, that began to develop in Kyivan Rus in in the end of the 10th century after Prince Volodymyr had baptised the state. Icon painters mostly monks depicted Christ, the Virgin, angels and saints. Byzantine traditions were a model. Mosaic and frescos of St Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv is one of the most distinguished among the memorials of that period. The icon The Virgin of Volyn' which is regarded as a masterpiece belongs to the period of the Old-Rus State the Halychyna-Volyn'.
  2. Portrait painting as a separate genre appeared during the Renaissance (the 16th century) and was strongly
    influenced by the icon tradition. The first portraits included portrayals of nobles and Cossack chiefs.
  3. Many Ukrainian painters were attracted to the new Academy of Arts in St Petersburg (1757), which cultivated the classicist style of painting then popular in Europe. Well-known Ukrainian artists of that period are D. Levytskyi, K. Holovachevskyi, V. Borovykovskyi.
  4. Ukrainian art of the middle of the 19th century was closely connected with the name of T. Shevchenko, who devoted most of his painting to Ukrainian interests. He was considered the father of modern Ukrainian painting. Shevchenko painted numerous portraits, self-portraits and landscapes with many architectural monuments of Ukraine. During the 19th century landscape painting appeared as a separate genre, and not only in the works of Shevchenko. Inspired by romanticism, I. Sochenko, A. Kuindzhi, I. Aivazovskyi, S. Vasylkivskyi and I. Pokhytonov devoted their efforts to depicting rural scenery at it most beautiful
  5. E.At that time Ukraine was called East European Italy. Artists from Russia and European countries visited Ukraine to enrich themselves with new themes and images. One of such artists was Vasyl Schternberg, a friend of Shevchenko, a master of lyrical landscape.
  6. F.Odesa art school and Kyiv drawing school occupied an important place at the beginning of the 20th century. Outstanding artists such as Mykola Murashko and Mykola Pymonenko were prominent representatives of that time. Some artists of Ukrainian origin who taught in Kyiv school were Mikhail Vrubel, Vasilii Vasnitsov and lllia Repin.
  7. G.Ukrainian art of the turn of the 20th century could not avoid the influence of the leading European art trends impressionism and avant-garde tendencies. Kharkiv school of 1910-1930, where artists were under the influence of constructivism, was notable for its originality. It was represented by A. Petrytskyi and V. Yermylov. O. Ekster spread the ideas of cubiform futurism in painting and worked in Kyiv. O. Bohomazov experimented with abstraction, Yurii Mykhailiv continued the traditions of the symbolists. Worldwide known Kazimir Malevich spoke of the influence of Ukrainian baroque and icon painting on his works. An original phenomenon of the early 20th century was Mykhailo Boichuk Art School. It combined the traditions of folk picture, local primitive painting and the principles of religion art.
  8. H.Ukrainian art of Soviet period is represented by many talented painters: T. Yablonska, Y. Bokchai, O. Shovkunenko, R. Selskyi, S. Shyshko, V. Zaretskyi and many others. M. Pryimachenko became a unique phenomenon having no analogues in world art. She is considered as a classic of Ukrainian folk art.
  9. I.Present-day Ukrainian art is developing in harmony with world art. National theme remains topical in painting in thematic and historical pictures, landscapes, associative and formalistic works.


b) Read the article again and refer its paragraphs (A-l) to the questions (1-9).

     1 Who is considered to be the father of modern Ukrainian painting?
     2 What period is connected with the development of abstraction and symbolism?
     3 What genre of painting was under the strong influence of Byzantine traditions?
     4 What are the tendencies of the present-day Ukrainian art?
     5 What art schools played an important role at the beginning of the 20th century?
     6 Why was Ukraine called East European Italy?
     7 When did portrait painting appear as a separate genre?
     8 Who represented Ukrainian painting art of Soviet period?
     9 What style did Academy of Arts in St Petersburg cultivate?
     10 It must have been at least twenty feet high as it swept towards the shore. In a few seconds it destroyed all the houses in its way, drowning everyone inside.

Name some of the Ukrainian painters.

WORD
FILE
an artist [ɑ:tıst]
an image ['ımıʤ]
fame [feım]
a genre [ʒɒnrǝ]
a masterpiece ['mɑ:stǝpi:s]
a scene [si:n]
a scenery ['si:nǝri]
a tendency ['tendǝnsi]
a theme [Ɵi:m]
to depict [dı'pıııkt]
to devote [di'vaot]
to propagate ['propageit]
to represent [.repri'zent]
to be
inspired [in'spaisd]
by influenced ['influanst]
  1. someone who produces art, especially paintings or drawings (paragraph C)
  2. to describe something, especially in pictures or writing (A)
  3. to use talent, paintings, pictures, etc. in order to help something be successful (D)
  4. a particular type of art, which has certain characteristics that all examples of this type share (B)
  5. a picture that you have in your mind (E)
  6. interesting or unusual, that is worth being noticed or mentioned (G)
  7. well-known and important (F)
  8. to do something that expresses the feelings, opinions, manners, etc. of a group of people (H)
  9. a person who belongs to a certain group of people (F)
  10. the main subject or idea in a piece of painting (I)
  11. interesting because it deals with something that is important at the present time (I)
Complete the text with the words in the box.

influenced, created, masters, painter, artists, portrait, fame, represented (x2), genre

Painting in England in the 17th-19th centuries is ... by a number of great... and during that period it was greatly ... by foreign painters. The Flemish painter Van Dyck was really the father of English ... School. The English king personally invited Van Dyck to London and during his first year in
England the painter spent most of his time
painting the King and the Queen. Such prominent...
as Reynolds, Gainsborough and Lawrence were
nfluenced by his works.
He ... a ... of aristocratic
and intellectual portrait
which ... much the
development of English
painting.

During the 18th century the national school of painting was created. William Hogarth was the first great English painter who raised British pictorial art to a high level of importance. He wasn't a success as a portrait...
But his pictures of social life which he called 'modern moral subject' brought him ... and position. Among his favourite works are 6 pictures under the title 'Marriage a la Mode'.
 
Work in groups. Speak on the following items.

  • frescoes as the examples of the oldest art
  • icon-painting tradition
  • Ukrainian portrait painting
  • the influence of Russian painting
  • the Ukrainian art life in the early 20th century
  • the tendencies of the painting development in Ukraine
VOCABULARY
Write as many true sentences as you can.

Gainsborough
Reynolds
Van Dyck
Michelangelo
Rembrandt
Aivazovskyi
Malevich
is an outstanding
a prominent
a distinguished
a brilliant
painter
artist'
representative
of the 19th
18th
17th
century.

Repin
Yablonska
Borovykovskyi
Shevchenko
Levytskyi
Pymonenko
Aivazovskyi
was a brilliant
prominent
portraitist. pastoral scenes.
nature.
landscape,
sea-scape.
still-life.
battle scenes.
painter of

He
She
depicts
describes
portrays
reflects
brilliant
prominent
a group of children.
a tall tree.
a mill on the river.
a beautiful woman.
WORD
FILE
baroque [bǝ'rok]
a trend [trend]
to capture ['kæptʃǝ]
to portray [pɔ:'treı]
Match the words with their definitions.

1 a painting
2 a landscape
3 a seascape
4 a portrait
5 a sitter
6 a still life
7 a fresco
8 a scene
9 a piece
a is a painting or other artistic representation ot the sea.
b is a picture on a wall or ceiling
c this word is used as a general term meaning 'work', 'picture'
d is a person (subject, model) who is having his portrait painted
e is a picture, a canvas
f this word is used in expressions: city scene, country scene, historical scene, street scene, battle scene
g is a picture representing a scenery of nature or countryside
h is a painting of such unanimated subjects as fruit, flowers or other decorative things
i is a painting, picture or representation of a person, especially of a face generally drawn from life

Look at the paintings and refer each (a-i) to the appropriate trend.

     folk
     icon
     primitive
     abstraction
     avant-garde
     classicism
     futurism
     impressionism
     realism

GRAMMAR
GRAMMAR
POINT
PAST PERFECT TENSE (Минулий перфектний час)

The Past Perfect is used to show a past action that happened before another action in the past.
Examples: Bill had just finished the test when the bell rang.
After I had finished the text I left.

  • The Past Perfect Tense is often used with the following words and phrases: by, by the time, before, after, just, when: By the time I got to class, the lesson had started. Mike had already eaten his pizza before I got home.
Complete the sentences with the words in the box.

after
before
when
by
for
  1. ... I went to bed, I had turned off the radio.
  2. I was really hungry as I hadn't eaten anything ... breakfast.
  3. I had forgotten to clean my teeth ... I got into bed.
  4. ... midnight, I had finished the magazine article.
  5. I watched TV ... we had finished dinner.
Choose A or B so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence (1-5).

  1. We had tidied the house when the visitors arrived.
    A We tidied the house and then the visitors arrived.
    B The visitors arrived and later we tidied the house.
  2. He didn't go to bed until his mum had come home.<
    A He went to bed and then his mum came home.
    B His mum came home and then he went to bed.
  3. Nick read the book after he had seen the film.
    A Nick read the book and then he saw the film.
    B Nick saw the film and then he read the book.
  4. Ms Williams hadn't arrived at the office by the time John got there.<
    A Ms Williams arrived before John.
    B John arrived before Ms Williams.
  5. They had had dinner before Lilly arrived.
    A They had dinner and then Lilly arrived.
    B Lilly arrived and then they had dinner.
Complete by changing the form of the verb in brackets into the Past Perfect.

  1. Tania ... (not/finish) doing the housework by five o'clock, so she called Nadia to tell her she would be late.
  2. She didn't eat anything at the party because ... (she/already/eat) at home.
  3. He ... (just/finish) his homework when the teacher came in.
  4. By the time I arrived, the play ... (start)!
GRAMMAR
POINT
PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE
(Минулий перфектно-тривалий час)

Past Perfect Continuous is used to show an action that was in progress in the past before another action (Past Simple) happened or interrupted[1] it.
Examples: We had a break because we had been working so hard.
He had been training for three years when he painted this masterpiece.

  • The Past Perfect Continuous is often used with the following words and phrases: for, since, before, all day/night/etc.: Meg had been studying all day. Mary had been studying for hours, so she had a headache. He had been reading the book since yesterday evening.

1 to interrupt [.ıntǝ'rʌpt] — переривати; припиняти

Match each result (1-5) with its cause (a-e).

1 There was an open book on the sofa.
2 The ground was wet.
3 Her eyes were red.
4 There was an empty box on the floor.
5 He was out of breath.

a She had been crying,
b They had been eating pizza,
c He had been reading,
d It had been raining,
e He had been running.

Complete the sentences using the prompts in brackets and putting the verbs into the Past Perfect Continuous.

  1. When I arrived ... (they/wait/for over half an hour).
  2. They were hot because ... (dance).
  3. When I got there, ... (they/not/wait/long).
  4. She was tired because ... (run).
  5. The garden was flooded because ... (it/rain/all night).
Choose the correct tense form (a) or (b) to complete each sentence.

  1. Rita hadn't... me that she would help me, so I wasn't angry when she didn't.
    a) told   b) been telling
  2. It was a fantastic experience because I had never... in a plane before.
    a) flown   b) been flying
  3. I had only ... the washing-up for a few minutes when Nina came home, so she offered to finish it.
    a) done   b) been doing
  4. Lucy had ... her cup of tea for several minutes before she realised it had salt in it!
    a) drunk   b) been drinking
  5. Had you already ... Mark his birthday present when we gave him ours?
    a) given   b) been giving
LISTENING
Work in pairs. Take turns asking and answering the questions.

  1. Why do people go to museums and galleries?
  2. Which famous museums do you know?
  3. Which of museums have you visited?
  4. Exposition of which museum would you like to see?
  5. What makes people create works of art?
  6. What makes people collect them?
  7. What makes people go to see them in museums and other places?
Work in small groups. Explain the meanings of the words and phrases below.

  • a handy map
  • an entrance ticket
  • to avoid the crowds
  • reasonably priced cafés
  • to borrow an audio guide for a free
  • photography is permitted
  • be organised into 'wings'
  • a personal discovery
Listen to the advice and explain what should you do to get an audio guide.
Listen again and answer the questions.

  1. Do you need to buy a map?
  2. What should you visit first?
  3. When should you see the galleries that most interest you? Why?
  4. Where can you have lunch?
  5. What should you do in the afternoon?
  6. Can you take photographs?
  7. Do you have to pay for audio guides?
  8. What do you have to remember if you borrow one? Why?
http://www.louvre.fr
Read the information. Then imagine you've visited the National Gallery in London. Describe your visit there.

THE NATIONAL GALLERY COLLECTION

The National Gallery was founded in1824 and houses the national collection of Western Europe in painting: over 2,000 pictures from 1260 to 1900. The Collection represents all the major European schools of painting and includes masterpieces by virtually all the great artists. It is arranged by period in four wings: Sainsbury Wing: Painting from 1260 to 1510 including Pierodella Francesca, Botticelli, Leonardo da Vinci, Bellini and Raphael. West Wing: Painting from 1510 to 1600 including Cranach, Michelangelo, Holbein, Bronzino, Titian, Veronese and El Creco.

North Wing: Painting from 1600 to 1700 including Rubens, Van Dyck, Poussin, Claude, Velazques, Rembrandt and Vermeer.

East Wing: Painting from 1700 to 1900 including Gainshorough, Turner, Constable, Monet, Renoir, Cezanne, Van Gogh and Seurat.

Tate-National Exchange. Each year National Gallery and some other of Britain's or foreign galleries exchange paintings in an agreement. For example, this year it exchanges with Tate Gallery and the Staten Museum for Kunst in Copenhagen.

Gallery Guide soundtrack. A unique portable CD-player which provides audio commentaries to almost every painting displayed on the main floor. Available at no obligatory charge at the main entrance and Sainshury Wing foyer, it allows visitors to call up information on pictures of their choice. A highlights tour of 30 great paintings is available in six languages: English, French, German, Italian, Japanese and Spanish.

Computer Information Room: 'Micro Gallery'. A computerised information system of the entire Collection enabling visitors to explore individual areas of interest whether it is a particular painting, artist, period or subject matter. Use of the system is free of charge. Sainsbury Wing, first floor. Open Monday to Saturday 10 am to 5:30 pm (Wednesday until 7:30 pm), Sunday 12 noon to 5:30 pm.

www.nationalgallery.org.uk

SPEAKING
Talk with your partner on the following items.

  1. Do you often go to museums?
  2. When did you go to a museum last?
  3. Where is the museum situated?
  1. Who built it?
  2. What can you tell about the expositions of the museum?
Read the dialogue and identify the participants. Act it out in pairs.

A: Can I help you? I see you are in a difficulty.

B: Yes, thank you. You see, this is my first visit to this gallery.

A: Oh, I am sure you will enjoy seeing our collections. Only one visit here is not enough. You will have to come here again and again to get a full impression of the museum.

B: Of course, I understand that. I know that this gallery is one of the richest art galleries of the world, and I cannot hope to see everything in one day.

A: What is it you would like to see today?

B: Do you have paintings by Renaissance masters?

A: Yes, we have a fine collection of their paintings on the second floor. Just go up this staircase, then walk along the corridor and cross the hall of the 19th century masters.

B: Thank you very much.

Work in pairs. Complete the dialogue with the sentences from A to E (page 121) and dramatise it.

     Peter: ...
     Nick: I'm going to Lviv to visit some of the museums of the city.
     Peter: ...
     Nick: What interesting exhibits do they display?
     Peter: ... Nick: Is there a picture gallery in the city?
     Peter: ...
     Nick: It's good you've shared your impressions with me. I'm impatient to see it all with my own eyes.
     Peter: ...
     Nick: Thanks, Pete, bye.
WORD
FILE
an exhibit [,eksı'biʃn]
an exponent [ık'spǝʊnǝnt]
an exposition [.ekspǝ'zıʃn]
an item [aıtǝm]
to contain [kǝn'teın]
to display [dı'spleı]
to hold [hǝʊld]
to include [ın'klu:d]
to offer ['ɒfǝ]
to be
ion a display
available
  1. Well, there are many things dating back to ancient times: national embroidery, collections of coins, glassware, all kinds of weapons[2], articles made of bone, stone, iron or silver and different manuscripts.
  2. Have a nice journey.
  3. I say, Nick, what are you doing on Sunday?
  4. Oh, yes, and by the way, it's very rich. It's named after Vasyl Stefanyk, a well-known Ukrainian writer. It has beautiful collections of pictures, portraits, landscapes, seascapes and still life. They mostly belong to Ukrainian artists.
  5. Oh; that's wonderful. I've been at the historical museum in Lviv. It's really worth visiting.
Work in groups. Read the information from Kyiv Guidebook (pp.121-122). Discuss it to choose one place to visit. Explain your choice to the class.

USEFUL
PHRASES
We could...
Let's think about...
Why not to visit...?
It would be a good idea to...
Perhaps the museum is...
Making a Choice
In my opinion, this one would be better.
To my mind, this one's more suitable.
To my way of thinking, this one's fine.
In my view, this one is the best.
We need to consider...
For one thing...
For another, ...
Another reason is that...

2 weapon [wepǝn] — зброя


USE YOUR ENGLISH
Complete the text by changing the form of the verb in brackets into the Past Perfect Continuous.

My family and I ... (watch) a scary science-fiction film for an hour when I noticed that I was alone in the room. We ... (look) forward to this film all day, but when I looked round, the room was empty! My little sister had left the room earlier. She ... (cry) because she was scared. My mum and dad ... (sit) on the sofa, but then they went to make some coffee. Outside it was dark and it... (rain) all evening. Suddenly, I heard a strange moaning noise. 'Mum!' I yelled. Then Dad laughed. He ... (hide) behind my chair.

Write sentences using the prompts. Change the form of the verbs so that one of them should be in the Past Perfect Tense.

  1. She / be / hungry / because / she / not / eat / anything / all day
  2. By the time /1 leave / school /1 / decide / to become / a painter
  3. We / just / hear / the news / when / you / ring
  4. When /1 / turn on / the TV / the programme / already / start
  5. I / already / think of / that / before / you / suggest / it
Complete the text with the words in the box.

imasters, representatives, portraitist, created, landscape, impressionists, outstanding, painted, sitter, countryside, observation, painting, contain, well-known

Sir Joshua Reynolds was the most (1) ... portraitist of the second half of 18th century. In December 1768 the Royal Academy was founded and Reynolds became its first president. He (2) ... a whole gallery of portraits of the most famous people of that period. He usually (3)... his characters in heroic (4)... and showed them as the best people of the nation.

But the leading (5) ... of his day was Thomas Lawrence. He became painter to George III in 1792 and president of the Royal Academy (1820-1830). Queen Charlotte is one of his finest portraits.

Thomas Gainsborough, one of the greatest (6)... of the English school, was a portraitist and a (7)... painter. His portraits are painted in clear tones. Blue and green are his favourite colours. One of the most famous works is the Portrait of the Dutchess of Beaufort. He managed to create a true impression of the (8)... . Gainsborough greatly influenced the English school of landscape (9)... .He was one of the first English artists to paint his native land (Sunset, The Bridge and others). He was the first English artist to paint his native (10)... so sincerely. His works (11)... much poetry and music. He is sometimes considered the forerunner[3]1 of the impressionists.

John Constable, an English landscape painter, painted many (12)... works (A Cottage in a Cornfield, The Loch). He is the first landscape painter who considered that every painter should make his sketc hes directly from nature working in the open air. His technique and colouring are very close to the (13) .... Constable ignored the rules established by Reynolds. He insisted that art should be based on (14)... of nature and feeling. He was the herald of romanticism. But the realistic qualities of his art are sensed very strongly.


3 a forerunner ['fɔ:гʌnǝ] — попередник

Work in groups of 2-3. Choose one of the famous painters. Make cards with some facts about the painter (one card for each fact). There may be 5 cards. Distribute your fact cards one for each of other groups.

Step 1 Find your pair. Members of the group search for his/her pair.
They have to match the person to the fact.

Step 2 Prepare a talk. When pairs are formed, each pair is given five minutes
to find as many facts about that person as they can.

Step 3 Report to the group.

Step 4 Vote for the best report.

Choose one of the items below to write a paragraph on it.

  1. My preference lies with the genre of... because...
  2. I prefer landscape to other genres. You see...
  3. I care much for still lives...
  4. I prefer battle pieces...
a) Work in pairs. Explain each other the meanings of the following statements and say if you agree.

  1. It's hard to overestimate the role of art in one's life.
  2. Art forms our outlook and enriches our inner world.
  3. Art has a great educational value.
  4. Art brings people up and makes them more humane and kinder.
  5. Art holds up people's spirits in the tragic moments of their lives.
  6. The language of art is universal.
b) Exchange your ideas with another pair.

Imagine you are a guide at the exhibition. Tell something about the artists and their paintings to the visitor. Work in pairs.

Work in groups. Read about the art galleries in London and choose one to visit. Present and explain your choice.

Tate Britain displays the world's largest collection of British art from the 16th to the 21st century. The international modern art once housed here is now held at Tate Modern. In the Galleries there are works of J. Turner, the great landscape painter.

National Portrait Gallery is a wonderful museum that holds portraits of main characters of Britain giving faces to names which are familiar from the history books. There are pictures of kings, queens, poets, musicians, artists, thinkers, heroes from all periods since the late 14th century. The gallery has a new restaurant and a lecture theatre. It also houses temporary exhibitions and has an excellent shop selling books on art.

Somerset House is located in Somerset House, the elegant Georgian building. It is a small but spectacular Institute of Art Gallery. Its collection of paintings has been displayed here since 1990 due to the philanthropist Samuel Courtauld. On display are works by Botticelli, Bellini and Rubens. Impressionist and Post-Impressionist paintings draw the most attention. Among the masters of this trend are Monet, Pissarro, Renoir and others.

National Gallery has existed since early 19th century. In 1824 the government bought 38 major paintings, including works by Raphael and Rembrands and these became the start of a national collection. The collection grew over the years. There are works by Constable, Leonardo da Vinci, Diego Belazquez anc many other outstanding artists. The National Gallery has over 2,300 painting; most kept on permanent display.

Read and discuss the problem in class.

We know that many people today reject[4] old art and protect new trends in art. But what shall we do about the great works of Raphael and Leonardo da Vinchi or Rembrandt and Rublev? Shall we reject them?

Share your opinions using the ideas below.

for old artfor modern art
  1. Painting of old masters is one of the greatest treasures mankind[5] has collected in the history of its civilization.
  2. Old painting reflects the collective experience of human spiritual life of many centuries.
  1. New times call for new songs. Modern man is naturally interested in the art reflecting his own time and his own experience.
  2. Worship[6] of old masters is a drag on the development of new progressive art. We should look forward instead of turning back all the time./li>

4 to reject [rı'ʤekt] — відкидати, відхиляти
5 mankind [mæn'kaınd] — людство
6 worship ['wɜ:ʃıp] — поклоніння; обожнювання

WRITING
WRITING
POINT

After you have collected and organised your material, you are ready to start writing.

Drafting means writing a paragraph or an essay. But it is not a finished product yet. As you write the first draft, you need to follow your outline. You should focus on meaning and not grammar. Successful writers know that writing is mostly rewriting.

It can be divided into: 1 REVISING (you may change the content and the organisation of your paragraph/essay)

2 EDITING (or PROOFREADING) (you check for sentence structure, grammar and spelling)

Now you are ready for the final stage — writing the final draft. Make sure you have included all the corrections from the second draft. Do not forget that writing is a process and you should continue until you are satisfied with the final product.

Work in pairs. Read the paragraph and discuss the items below.


7 an antiquity [æn'tıkwǝtı] — старожитність; пам'ятка старовини

British Museum
  1. What is the paragraph about?
  2. What is the topic sentence? Underline the controlling idea.
  3. Look at the next few sentences. What do we call these sentences? Do they develop the topic sentence? Why (not)?
  4. Read the concluding sentence. Does it paraphrase or summarise the topic sentence?
  5. Does the paragraph have the quality of unity?
  6. Read the paragraph again and decide whether it is complete or not. Explain your answer.
a) Get some information and write 8-10 questions to it.

A well-written paragraph or essay must also have unity, completeness and coherence.

The word COHERENCE comes from the Latin verb 'cohere', which means 'hold together'.

To achieve coherence in writing, sentences must be arranged according to a certain principle. It means the sentences are ordered in some kind of logical order which makes the text easy to read.

Cohesive devices are various methods of connecting sentences to each other. They include: personal pronouns, demonstrative pronouns, the use of synonyms and various linking words. The most common type of linking words are transitions. They are words or phrases logically connecting sentences to one another.

There are three basic types of logical ordering; chronological, spatial and logical. There are transitional words and phrases of all these types. (See pages 168-169 in the Appendix).

An essay is a piece of writing consisting of several paragraphs. Similar to a paragraph, it also discusses one topic but in more details. In essay we have to divide the topic into different aspects and then discuss them in separate paragraphs. Next, we put the paragraphs together by using linking words or phrases and add an introduction and a conclusion.

b) Role-play the interview between a professor and a journalist in pairs.

a) Read the paragraph and identify the basic structural parts of it: the topic sentence, the supporting sentence and the concluding one.

Owing a car has certain disadvantages. Firstly, it is rather expensive because of the constant rise in petrol prices and the need for regular maintenance and repairs. Secondly, driving a car is often extremely stressful. For instance, the hopeless search for a parking space in city centres and endless traffic jams are exhausting, annoying and above all time-consuming. Last but not least, due to the worsening road conditions and numerous inexperienced drivers causing a lot of accidents, driving in the past decade has become dangerous. All things considered, having a car gives you only problems and worries.

b) Consult the list of transitions in Appendix (page 168) and replace the underlined transitional words or phrases with suitable alternatives.

Compare a paragraph and an essay structures.

PARAGRAPH STRUCTUREESSAY STRUCTURE
topic sentence
introduction
body (supporting sentences)
body (paragraphs)
concluding sentence
conclusion
Work in pairs. Read, then match the examples (1-4) and the techniques (a-d).

The introductory paragraph is a special paragraph in an essay. It has two main purposes: to introduce the topic and attract the reader's attention and interest. Look at the examples below, guess and say which technique has been used to attract the reader's attention and interest?

  1. Some scientists believe that the ozone layer over Antarctica is 10% smaller.
  2. Are you aware of the fact that your child spends 6 hours a day in front of the computer?
  3. Do you want to end up walking the dog at midnight while your teenage son or daughter is having a great time in the local disco?
  4. A picture is a poem without words (Horatio).
  1. addressing
    reader directly
  2. a rhetorical
    question
  3. a quotation
  4. interesting /
    unusual facts
a) Read the essay and decide what type it belongs to: a 'for and against' essay, an opinion essay or an essay providing solutions to problems.


b) Guess why the pupil received a bad mark for this essay. Discuss it with your partner.

c) Work in groups. Use your critical thinking and discuss the following items.

Introduction: Does the introductory paragraph attracts the reader's attention in a proper way? What technique is used?

Body: Is the method of ordering / organisation appropriate for the topic?

Conclusion: Does the concluding paragraph have both concluding sentence(s) and a final comment?

Transitions: Are transitional words and phrases between body paragraphs used correctly and effectively? (coherence)

d) Work in pairs. Read the essay again.
Discuss the questions on the paragraph structure.

  1. Does each paragraph have a topic sentence?
  2. Do supporting sentences give enough details to explain each point?
  3. Is a concluding sentence used?
  4. Are transitional words and phrases used correctly and effectively?
Write a short essay on the role of art in our lives. Use the Essay Checklist in Appendix (page 167) and the phrases below.

to form an outlook, to enrich one's inner world, an educational value, to bring up, to hold up one's spirit, to appeal to the heart and mind, to proclaim life, to understand the outside world, to influence feelings and emotions

Remember about the structure and the main principles of essay writing.

GRAMMAR

Read and choose the correct tense form.

VOCABULARY

Complete the text with the words in the box.

masterpiece, contains, exhibits, piece, collection, paintings, icons

MUSEUM OF ART AFTER BOHDAN AND VARVARA KHANENKO

Museum of Art was founded in 1919 on the basis of the private ... of Kyiv archeologist Bohdan Khanenko. The Green Cabinet features the collection of Medieval Art, the Golden Cabinet... objects of Rococo epoch and in the Red Cabinet you can find ... of Renaissance period. There are 17,000 ... in the museum funds. Among the exhibits are the paintings of Bellini, Hals, Reynolds, Rubens, the ... 'Infant Margaret' by Velazquez and unique Byzantine/Sinai ... of the 6th-7th centuries written by wax paint. Interesting exhibits are presented at the Department
of Oriental Art: ... of Coptic fabric with the picture of horseman (5th-6th centuries), ritual Chinese bell (1st century BC), excellent Chinese paintings on the scrolls (15th-20th centuries) and Japanese paintings.
www.khanenkomuseum.kiev.ua

LISTENING

Listen and choose the correct item from (a) to (c) to complete each sentence (1-6).

1 It was the visit to...
a) Kyiv Museum of Russian Art
b) National Museum of Ukrainian Folk Decorative Art
c) National Art Museum of Ukraine
2 Its galleries contain the collections from the...
a) 18th century
b) 15th century
c) 16th century
3 This collection is arranged in...
a) 20 halls b) 23 halls c) 21 halls
4 The oldest exhibit displayed in the museum is...
a) the icon of St Virgin
b) the wooden relief of St George
c) the portrait of unknown Cossack
5 The works of Shevchenko and Stenberg are presented in the collection of the...
a) 19th century
b) 18th century
c) 20th century
6 Melikov and Yablonska are representatives of...
a) old-fashioned painters
b) contemporary painters
c) classical painters

READING

Read and fill in the biography chart below.

William Turner, a great romantic English landscape painter, was born in Devonshire in 1775. He lived with his uncle in Middlesex, where he began to attend school. His first drawings are dated 1787, when he was only twelve years of age. His childish sketc.h-books, filled with drawings, are still presented in the British Museum.

When he was 21, he began to exhibit oil paintings as well as water-colours at the Royal Academy. The first 'Fishermen at Sea' is now in the Gate Gallery.

He travelled much in France, Germany, Switzerland and Italy. But he never lost his interest in his own country.

As a landscape painter Turner was interested mainly in light and colour effects. One of his famous paintings is even called 'Light and Colour'. His work is highly praised by great critics.

Turner died in London in 1851. His pictures and drawings became the property of the British nation.

William Turner is considered to be one of the world greatest painters.

Year Event
…. …………………………………………………………………….
…. …………………………………………………………………….

 


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